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OCTOBER 1976 

ST76-4 



A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL& ECONOMIC TRENDS 






PEOPLE 



COMMUNITY 



ECONOMY 






OTHER 
TRENDS 




Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 









Bureau of tne 

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A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL&ECONOMIC TRENDS 



OCTOBER 1976 

ST76-4 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Farm Population 4-6 

U.S. Veterans 7-9 

Personal Income 10 

White-Collar Salaries 11 

Personal Consumption 
Expenditures 12 

Employment & 
Unemployment 13-15 

Help-Wanted Index & 
Average Workweek 16 

Labor Turnover in 
Manufacturing 17 

Hypertension 18 

Selected Current 
Vital Statistics 19 

U.S. Population 20 

Lifetime Birth 
Expectations of U.S. 
Married Women 21 

Voting-Age Population 22 



Special Feature 

EDUCATION 

American Education 
Overview 24 

Participation: 
Preprimary Education 25 

Participation: Higher 
Education 26 

Participation: Postsecondary 
Education 27 



Participation: Adult 
Education 28 

Educational Institutions 29 

Educational Disparities 30 

Special Educational 
Needs 31 

Achievement: Writing 
Performance 32 

Achievement: Functional 
Literacy 33 

Achievement: National 
Group Results 34 

Scholastic Aptitude 
Test Results 35 

Public Views of 
Education 36-37 

Cross- National Comparisons: 
Participation 38 

Cross-National Comparisons: 
Role of Private 
Education 39 

Cross-National Comparisons: 
Achievement 40 



Map of the Month 

Population Distribution, 
Urban and Rural, in the 
United States: 1970 
47-49 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Fiscal Federalism 42-45 

Characteristics of New 
One-Family Homes 46 

U.S. District Courts 50-51 

Internal Revenue 
Collections 52 

Property Tax Assessments 53 

Daytime Care of 
Children 54-56 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

World Industrial Production: 
Developed Nations 58 

Industrial Production 59 
Exports and Imports 60 

Manufacturing & Trade 
Sales & Inventories 61 

Advance Retail 
Sales— August 62 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
Goods 63 

Consumer Price Index 64-65 

Wholesale Price Index 66 

Agricultural Prices 67 



Housing Permits, 
by State 68-69 

Housing Starts & 
Permits 70 



Value of New 
Construction 71 

Federal Construction 72 

Expenditures for New 
Plant & Equipment 73 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 74 

Business Incorporations 
& Failures 75 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 76 



Section IV 

OTHER 

International Travel 
To & From 
the U.S. 78-79 

Public Attitudes 
Toward Science & 
Technology 80-81 

Automobile Operating 
Costs 82-83 

Farm Production & 
Income 84-85 

Employment & 
Unemployment of 
Artists 86 

Federal Recreation 
Fees 87 



NOTES & 

DEFINITIONS 

88-90 



SOURCES 91-92 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



U.S. Department 
of Commerce 

Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

Robert L. Hagan, Acting Director 
Shirley Kallek, Associate Director 

for Economic Fields 
Daniel B. Levine, Associate Director 

for Demographic Fields 

ECONOMIC SURVEYS DIVISION 
Roger H. Bugenhagen, Chief 



Executive Office of the President, 
Office of Management and Budget 

James T. Lynn, Director 
Paul H. O'Neill, Deputy Director 
Fernando Oaxaca, Associate Director 
for Management and Operations 
Joseph W. Duncan, Chief Statistician 
C. Louis Kincannon, Project Coordinator 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This publication is prepared in the 
Economic Surveys Division, Bureau 
of the Census, under the general 
direction of Roger Bugenhagen, 
assisted by Peter Ohs, Assistant 
Division Chief. John Deshaies, 
Chief, Chartbook Branch, 
assisted by Laurie Griffin and 
James C Richardson, is directly 
responsible for the technical 
review and supervision of the re- 
port; Lorraine Tischler, Caiman J. 
Cohen, Patricia Russell, Eleanor 
Clark, Dennis Gosier, and 
Queen Ware served as the major 
analysts in the preparation of 
graphic materials. Raymond L. 
Bancroft of the Public Informa- 
tion Office provided valuable 
editorial assistance. Publica- 
tion design services were pro- 
vided by Nicholas Preftakes, 
Publications Services Division, 
with editing by C. Maureen Padgett, 
also of Publications Services 
Division. Graphics systems 
were developed under the direc- 
tion of Claggett Jones, Chief 
of the Systems Software 
Division, with the assistance 



of Lawrence Cornish. 

All cartographic displays 
appearing in STATUS were pre- 
pared by Geography Division 
under the general direction 
of Jacob Silver, Division 
Chief, with technical 
direction by Frederick R. 
Broome, assisted by Roy F. 
Borgstede. 

This publication is pre- 
pared under the general 
guidance of an editorial 
committee established by 
the Office of Management 
and Budget. The committee 
consists of the following 
persons: Joseph W. Duncan, Chair- 
man, and C. Louis Kincannon, 
Executive Secretary, Office 
of Management and Budget; 
Donald Barrowman, Department 
of Agriculture; Morris R. Goldman, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, and 
Shirley Kallek, Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce; 
Albert H. Linden, Jr., Federal 
Energy Administration; John L. 
Stone, Federal Reserve Board; 
Marie D. Elderidge, National Center 



for Education Statistics; Jacob J. 
Feldman, National Center for 
Health Statistics; Thomas Staples, 
Social Security Administration, and 
Gooloo Wunderlich, Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Health, 
Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare; Robert E. Johnson, Jr., 
Department of the Interior; Harry 
Bratt, Department of Justice; 
Janet Norwood, Department of 
Labor; and William Smith, Internal 
Revenue Service, Department of 
Treasury. 

The planning and development of 
content for this publication were 
carried out with the assistance of a 
technical committee established 
by the Office of Management and 
Budget. The committee members 
are shown on the inside of the back 
cover. 

The cooperation of various govern- 
ment and private agencies which 
provide data is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Agencies furnishing data are 
indicated on the appropriate chart 
and also listed in the Sources of 
Data. 



The Secretary of Commerce has 
determined that the publication 
of this periodical is necessary in 
the transaction of the public 
business of this Department. Use of 
funds for printing this publication 
has been approved by the Director, 
Office of Management and Budget, 
through October 1, 1977. 

SUGGESTED CITATION 

United States. Bureau of the Census. 
STATUS: a monthly chartbook 
of social and economic trends. 
Washington. 

Prepared for the Office of 
Management and Budget. 

"Compiled by the Federal 
Statistical System." 



76-600037 



For sale by the Subscriber 
Services Section, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. 
Price: $3.60 per copy. 



INTRODUCTION 



STATUS is a chartbook which 
depicts important social and 
economic trends and events. 
Its purpose is to breathe 
life into the many numbers 
which spill daily from the 
multiple and diverse agencies 
of the Federal Statistical 
System. 

STATUS is a graphic pre- 
sentation of current statis- 
tical information focusing 
on major social and economic 
conditions within the United 
States. There is an extensive 
use of color in presenting 



charts and maps. The major 
objective of the chartbook is 
to digest complex statistical 
information, and to relay this 
information in a readily under- 
standable form, quickly and 
accurately. The graphic 
techniques used represent the 
current "state of the art." 
However, experimentation with 
different and innovative tech- 
niques is continuous, and as 
new techniques are developed 
they will be applied. The 
goal is to constantly improve 
the understandability of 



timely, important statistical 
information. 

STATUS has been designed 
for different audiences. It 
is not intended for the ex- 
clusive use of professional 
statisticians, economists, 
or other social scientists. 
Although it will be useful 
for the professional, it is 
directed also at the general 
public and decisionmakers 
and policymakers in numerous 
fields of business, govern- 
ment, and academia. 

In each edition of STATUS, 



major sections provide current 
statistical graphic informa- 
tion about the people, the 
community, economy, and 
other areas such as science 
and the environment. Each 
issue contains a special fea- 
ture which covers in greater 
depth a subject of major 
public interest. Also, a 
special map will be desig- 
nated each month to identify 
geographic areas of special 
concern. 

(Continued on page 94) 



Section 



people 



Farm Population 

Average Farm Population and 
Percent of Total U.S. 
Population: 1920-1975 4 

Farm Population, by Age: 
Selected Years 5 

Percent Distribution of the 
Farm Population, by Age: 
Selected Years 5 

Employment of Farm 
Residents in Agriculture 
and Nonagricultural 
Industries: 1961-1975 6 

Median Income for Farm and 
Nonfarm Families, by Race: 
1970-1974 6 

U.S. Veterans 

The Veteran Population of the 
United States: 1945-1975 7 

Veterans as a Percent of the 
Male Population 18 Years and 
Over: 1945-1975 7 

Potential Recipients of 

VA Benefits: June 30, 1975 7 

Persons Receiving VA 
Educational Assistance, by 
Program: FY 1974 and 1975 8 

Annual Cost for VA Educational 
Assistance Programs: FY 1974 
and 1975 8 



VA Health Care Facilities 
Operating at the End of the 
Year: 1974 and 1975 9 

Average Number of Patients 
Attended per Day: FY 1974 
and 1975 9 

Dependents of Veterans 
Receiving VA Medical Care: 
FY 1975 9 

Personal Income 

Personal Income 10 

Total Wage and Salary 
Disbursements 10 

White-Collar Salaries 

Percent Increase in Average 
Salaries for White-Collar 
Occupations, by Occupational 
Group: March 1971 -March 
1976 11 

Percent Increase in Average 
Salaries for Professional, 
Administrative, and Technical 
Support Occupations: March 
1975-March 1976 11 

Percent Increase in Average 
Salaries for Clerical and 
Clerical Supervisory 
Occupations: March 1975- 
March 1976 11 

Personal Consumption 
Expenditures 

Components of Nondurable 
Goods 12 

Components of Durable 
Goods 12 

Components of Services 12 



Employment & 
Unemployment 

Civilian Labor Force and 
Employment 13 

Unemployment Rates 13 

Unemployment Rates, by Age, 
Sex, and Race 14 

Unemployment Rates, by 
Occupation 15 

Unemployment Rates, by 
Industry 15 

Help- Wanted Index 
& Average Workweek 

Help-Wanted Advertising 16 

Average Weekly Hours of 
Production or Nonsupervisory 
Workers on Private 
Nonagricultural Payrolls, by 
Industry 16 

Factory Overtime 16 

Labor Turnover 
in Manufacturing 

Labor Turnover in 
Manufacturing 17 

Separations 17 

Accessions 17 

Hypertension 

Persons Identified as Having 
Definite Hypertension, by 
Age, Race, and Sex: 
1971-1974 18 

Percent of Persons With 
Definite Hypertension Not 
Previously Diagnosed by 
Physician: 1971-1974 18 



Selected Current 
Vital Statistics 

Birth Rate 19 

Death Rate 19 

Infant Mortality 
Rate 19 

U.S. Population 

Population of the United 
States, Including Armed 
Forces Overseas: July 1, 
1900-July 1, 1976 20 

Lifetime Birth 
Expectations of 
U.S. Married Women 

Average Lifetime Births 
Expected per Currently 
Married Woman 18 to 
39 Years: February 1967- 
June 1976 21 

Births to Date and Lifetime 
Births Expected for Women 
18 to 34 Years: 
June 1976 21 

Voting-Age Population 

Population of Voting Age, 
by Region: November 1968, 
1972, and 1976 22 

Ten States With the Largest 
Populations of Voting Age: 
November 1976 22 

Ten States With Largest 
Increase Over 1972: 
November 1976 22 



FARM POPULATION 



Farm Population 
Continues To Decline 

In the 12-month period 
centered on April 1975, an 
average of 8.9 million per- 
sons, or 4.2 percent of the 
Nation's population, lived 
on farms in rural areas of 
the United States. The 
1975 estimate indicates the 
continuation of a long-term 



MILLIONS 



downward trend in the size 
of the farm population. In 
1920 the U.S. farm population 
numbered 32 million, or 30.1 
percent of the total popula- 
tion. By 1960, the number 
of farm residents had dropped 
to approximately 15.6 million 
or 8.7 percent of the popu- 
lation. In 1970, farm 
residents averaged 9.7 mil- 
lion— 4.8 percent of the 
U.S. population. 




1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980 





AVERAGE 


PERCENT 




NUMBER 


OF TOTAL 


FARM 


OF FARM 


U.S. POPU 


POPULATION 


RESIDENTS 


LATION 




Millions 


Percent 


1920 


31.974 


30.1 


1940 


30.547 


23.2 


1960 


15,635 


8.7 


1970 


9.712 


4.8 


1975 


8.864 


4.2 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



FARM POPULATION 



Children on Farms 
Decreased 25% 
Between '70 and '75 

Between 1970 and 1975 the 
number of children (under 
14 years) living on farms 
decreased nearly 25 percent, 
from approximately 2.5 
million to 1.9 million. 
During the same period, 
there was no significant 
change in the number of 



farm residents 14 years and 
over. Consequently, the 
proportion of children in 
the farm population fell 
from 26 percent in 1970 to 
21 percent in 1975. This 
decline reflects, to a 
considerable degree, a high 
net outmigration in past 
years of young farm adults 
of childbearing age. How- 
ever, much of the decrease 
since 1970 can also be 



attributed to the recent 
sharp drop in the national 
birth rate, which has ex- 
tended to both farm and 
nonfarm areas. 



10 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



9 -- 



8-- 



7-- 



6 -- 



5-- 



4 -- 



3-- 



2 -- 



1 -- 



Farm Population, by Age: 
Selected Years 



9.3 



5.0 



3.6 



2.5, 



1.9 



7.5 



6.1 



5.9 



1.3 



1.2 



1.1 1.1 






Percent Distribution of the 
Farm Population, by Age: 
Selected Years 



Under 14 Years 
14 to 64 Years 
65 Years and Over 



nn — 


PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 
















31.9 




29.5 




25.6 




21.0 




90- 


















" 


80- 












66.9 


- 










62.8 


70 - 


60.6 




59.7 


60- 


















- 


50- 


















- 


40- 


















- 


30- 


















- 


20- 


















- 


10- 
n - 






















3 




9.9 







1960 1965 1970 1975 



UNDER 

14 YEARS 



I960 1965 1970 1975 

14-64 YEARS 



1960 1965 1970 1975 

65 YEARS 
AND OVER 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



FARM POPULATION 



Only 52% of Employed 
Farm Residents Work 
in Agriculture 

Agricultural employment 
among farm residents 14 
years and over declined 
steadily during the last 
two decades, as employment 
in nonagricultural industries 
grew. 

During the 1961-75 period, 
the overall proportion of 



the farm-resident labor 
force employed solely or 
primarily in agriculture 
decreased from 68 percent 
to 52 percent, with employ- 
ment in nonagricultural 
industries showing comparable 
growth. 



Income Gap Between 
Farm and Nonfarm 
Workers Closing 

The differential between 
farm and nonfarm income is 
declining. Between 1970 
and 1974, the median income 
of farm families increased 
by 21 percent, while that 
of nonfarm families increased 
only 2 percent. The 1974 
median income of farm fami- 



lies was $10,430, compared 
with $12,930 for nonfarm 
families. This difference 
is only about 60 percent as 
great as the 1970 farm- 
nonfarm differential. The 
proportional difference 
between farm and nonfarm 
income levels is greater 
for black families than 
white families. 



PERCENT EMPLOYED 




Employment of Farm Residents in 
Agriculture and in Nonagricultural 
Industries: 1961-1975 



EMPLOYMENT OF FARM 
RESIDENTS 



1961 



1970 



1975 



Agriculture 
Nonagricultural Industries 





Percent 




67.5 


55.4 


51.6 


32.5 


44.6 


48.4 



1960 1963 

THOUSANDS OF 1974 DOLLARS 



1966 



1969 



1972 



975 



1978 



12 - 



9 - 



6 - 



WHITE 



TOTAL 



F 



L 






Median Family Income for Farm 
and Nonfarm Families, by Race: 
1970-1974 



BLACK AND OTHER RACES 



1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 
FARM 



971 197? 1973 1974 

NONFARM 



1 1972 1973 1974 

FARM 



1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 

NONFARM 



1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 

FARM 



1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 

NONFARM 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 



U.S. VETERANS 



41.8% of Males Over 18 
Were Veterans in '75; 
Total Vets: 29 Million 

There were an estimated 
29,459,000 male and female 
veterans in civilian life 
on June 30, 1975. This 
figure represents an increase 
of 0.6 percent over the 
veteran population of a year 
ago— the smallest rate of 
growth since the beginning 



of the Vietnam era. Almost 
90 percent, or 26,367,000 
veterans, served in the 
Armed Forces during periods 
of war or armed conflict. 

In 1975, 41.8 percent of 
U.S. males 18 years and over 
were veterans, compared to 
42.7 percent in 1970 and 
13.2 percent in 1945. 



95.9 Million Potential 
Recipients of VA 
Benefits in 1975 

Veterans in civilian life 
actually represent less than 
one-third of all potential 
recipients of VA benefits 
and services. As of June 30, 
1975, the 29.5 million 
living veterans had 29.5 
million dependent children 
(under 18 years), 9.6 million 



other family members (18 
years or older) and 23.5 
million spouses. In addi- 
tion, there were 3.8 million 
dependents of deceased 
veterans at the end of 
FY 1975. 



MILLIONSOF VETERANS 



The Veteran Population 
of the United States: 
1945-1975 



100 



PERCENT 



80 -- 



60 -- 



40-- 



20 -- 



Veterans as a Percent 
of the Male Population 
18 Years and Over: 
1945-1975 



37.0 



42. 1 42. 1 42.7 41.8 




1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 



till 



1945 


1950 


1955 




U.S. VETERANS 


1945 


1955 1965 


1975 






Thousands 




VETERANS 


6,455 


21,802 25,259 


29,459 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



LIVING VETERANS 

VETERANS 



SPOUSES I 



DEPENDENT CHILDREN 

OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS 
DECEASED VETERANS 

WIDOWS(ERS) 

DEPENDENT CHILDREN 
DEPENDENT PARENTS 



29 . 5 



23. 5 



29 . 5 



9.6 



> 



7 



, Potential Recipients 

I - 9 f VA Benefits: 
June 30, 1975 

0. 2 



10 20 30 

MILLIONSOF PERSONS 



40 



SOURCE VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 



8 U.S. VETERANS 



VA Educational Help 
Went to 2.7 Million 
in 1975- A Record 

Approximately 2,691,500 
veterans and active duty 
personnel received training 
during FY 1975 under the 
Post- Korean Educational 
Assistance Program— a 14.1- 
percent increase over the 
2,358,608 FY 1974 
beneficiaries. 



During FY 1975, the VA 
provided educational assis- 
tance to more veterans and 
eligible persons than in any 
other year under the current 
programs. Recent rate in- 
creases (Public Laws 93-508 
and 93-602) as well as the 
extension of the delimiting 
period for use of educational 
assistance benefits (Public 
Law 93-337) contributed 



considerably to the enlarged 
numbers of trainees. 

In general, veterans 
training under the current 
program have had a higher 
level of prior education 
than those who received 
training under earlier pro- 
grams. For example, 63 
percent of the 1975 service 
beneficiaries attended 
institutions of higher 
learning. 



Educational assistance 
costs in FY 1975 also rose 
to a record level of $4.4 
billion— the highest annual 
expenditure since the origi- 
nal World War II program 
was enacted in 1944. 



1 ,000 



1 ,500 



2 , 000 



2,500 3,000 



POST-KOREAN 

EDUCATIONAL ASSIST 

PROGRAM, TOTAL 



INSTITUTIONS OF 
HIGHER LEARNING 



SCHOOLS OTHER 




383 


THAN COLLEGE 


| 420 






CORRESPONDENCE 


| 431 


SCHOOLS 




387 


ON-JOB 
TRAINING 


1 2 12 
| 192 





CHILDREN'S 

EDUCATIONAL ASSIST. 

PROGRAM, TOTAL 



SPOUSE, WIDOW(ER 

EDUCATIONAL ASSIST. 

PROGRAM, TOTAL 



VOCATIONAL REHAB. 

PROGRAM FOR 

DISABLED VETERANS 




1 ,000 1 , 500 2 , 000 

THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 



2,500 3,000 



Annual Cost for VA Educational 

Assistance Programs: 

FY 1974 and 1975 197« 



1975 



500 



1 ,000 



1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 




1 ,000 1 ,500 2 ,000 2,500 
MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



4 , 000 4 , 500 



SOURCE VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 



U.S. VETERANS 

VA Health Care System 
Serves Average 173,360 
Daily During 1975 

At the end of FY 1975, the 
Veterans Administration 
health care system was pro- 
viding care in 171 hospitals, 
213 outpatient clinics, 85 
nursing homes,and 18domi- 
ciliaries. Care was also 
provided under VA auspices 
in non-VA hospitals and 



9 



community nursing homes, and 
by non-VA physicians and 
dentists to outpatients 
on a fee-for-service basis. 

During FY 1975, an average 
of 1 73,630 veterans were 
under care each day— 8,675 
more than the daily average 
for FY 1974, and the largest 
number per day of any year 
since the establishment of 
the Veterans Administration 
in 1930. The majority of 



patients were cared for in 
VA hospitals— a daily aver- 
age of 81,453 in FY 1974, 
and 79,973 in 1975. 

Dependents of veterans 
with total and permanent 
service-connected disabili- 
ties, and widows(ers) and 
children of veterans who 
died as a result of service- 
connected disabilities may 
receive VA medical care 
under Public Law 93-82, 



which was fully implemented 
during FY 1975. As of 
June 30, 1975, 152,300 
dependents had received 
approval for VA medical 
care benefits, including 
51,900 wives, 25,300 hus- 
bands, 200 widows(ers), 
and 74,900 children. 





NUMBER OF FACILITIES 
























VA Health Care 


209 


213 

| 1 




Facilities Operating at 






_ 


00 - 


the End of the Year: 








1974 




1974 and 1975 










1975 


75- 


-171 171 






- 


50- 












" 


25- 












- 


00 - 












- 
















84 85 


75- 






- 


50- 
















- 


25- 








18 18 












- 


- 















1 7 S 


THOUSANDS OF VA PATIENTS 












59,246 


Average Number 
of Patients Attended 






50,529 


150 - 










per Day: 

FY 1974 and 1975 

VISITING VA 
STAFF OR PRIVATE 
\ PHYSICIANS/DENTISTS, 


125 - 










ON A FEE-FOR-SERVICE" 




4,805- 




6,239- 




BASIS 

— INSTATE HOMES 

— IN VA DOMICILIARIES " 

1 IN COMMUNITY 

NURSING HOMES 

~~~ IN VA NURSING HOMES 

^ IN NON-VA HOSPITALS - 




10,984 


10,985 


100 - 


9,723 


9,181 










6,418- 
1,053- 




6,739- 
1,267' 




75 - 


81,453 


79,973 


50 - 










— IN VA HOSPITALS 


25- 

n - 













HOSPITALS DOMICILIARIES OUTPATIENT 

CLINICS 



NURSING 
HOME UNITS 



FY 1974 



FY 1975 



Dependents of 
Veterans Receiving 
VA Medical Care: 
FY 1975 



SPOUSES 

WIVES 


1 1 1 1 — 


I i 


-T" " 


1 










51 .9 




HUSBANDS 




25.3 


36.3 






VIDOWS(ERS) 
CHILDREN 


0.2 


1 


DAUGHTERS 














SONS 




38.6 




I I I 1 


l i 




1 




1 1 1 1 


1 1 




1 


1 





12 



18 



24 30 

THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 



36 



42 



48 



54 



SOURCE VETERANS ADMINISTRATION 



10 PERSONAL INCOME 



1,400 



August Personal Income 
Rises $6.1 Billion for 
13th Straight Gain 

Total personal income rose 
$6.1 billion in August to a 
seasonally-adjusted annual 
rate of $1,389.5 billion. 
This is the smallest of 
13 consecutive monthly 
gains in personal income. 
Transfer payments in- 
creased $1.6 billion in 
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



August, compared with an 
increase of $4.5 billion in 
July. A cost-of-living in- 
crease in social security 
benefits accounted for the 
large July increase. 

Wage and salary disburse- 
ments increased $4.5 billion, 
compared with an $8.9 billion 
increase in July. This was 
the second consecutive in- 
crease after a slight down- 
turn in June. 



Private wage and salary 
disbursements gained $3.5 
billion in August, with 
payrolls in service indus- 
tries posting the largest 
gain. Service industries 
payrolls increased $2.5 
billion in August, compared 
with a July increase of 
$2.2 billion. 

Distributive industries 
payrolls increased $0.8 



billion, compared with 
$2.5 billion. 

Payrolls in commodity- 
producing industries were 
virtually unchanged, compared 
with a $3.1 billion increase 
in July. 

Government and government 
enterprise wages and salaries 
increased $1.0 billion, 
approximately the same as 
in July. 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 






AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


PERSONAL INCOME 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




TOTAL 


1,267.5 


1,383.4 


1,389.5 


Wage and Salary Disbursements 


813.0 


892.0 


896.5 


Private Wages and Salaries 


635.9 


701.3 


704.8 


Commodity-Producing Industries 


276.4 


306.5 


306.6 


Distributive Industries 


197.9 


214.9 


215.7 


Service Industries 


161.6 


179.9 


182.4 


Government Wages and Salaries 


177.1 


190.7 


191.7 


Transfer Payments 


179.3 


191.3 


192.9 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



400 



300 



200 



100 



Total Wage and Salary Disbursements 



GOVERNMENT AND 

GOVERNMENT 

ENTERPRISES 



COMMODITY-PRODUCING 




^RVICE INDUSTRIES 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



WHITE-COLLAR SALARIES 



1 



Average Salaries Rise 
7% for White-Collar 
Employees in 12 Months 

Average salaries for selected 
white-collar occupations in 
private industry increased 
7 percent during the year 
ended March 1976. Although 
lower than last year's 9- 
percent increase, the latest 
rise is the second largest 
recorded in the 16 years 



that professional, adminis- 
trative, technical, and 
clerical salaries have been 
surveyed. 

Salary increases for 
clerical workers during 
the same period were 
at the same or a higher 
percentage rate than for 
professional, administrative, 
and technical workers for 
the fifth consecutive annual 
period. Increases for both 



groups were the second 
largest since the series 
began in 1961. 

March 1975-76 increases 
averaged 6.7 percent for 
professional, administrative, 
and technical occupations 
and 7.3 percent for clerical 
jobs. Engineering tech- 
nicians and directors of 
personnel received the 
largest pay increases 
(8.1 and 7.8 percent, 



respectively) while the 
smallest salary increases 
were recorded for auditors 
and job analysts (5.5 and 
6 percent, respectively). 
Stenographers received an 
8-percent pay increase over 
the course of the year, 
while salaries of file 
clerks gain only 6.4 
percent. 



Percent Increase in 
Average Salaries for 
White-Collar 
Occupations, by 
Occupational Group: 
March 1971-March 1976 



WHITE-COLLAR 
OCCUPAT I ONS 



PROFESSIONAL, 

ADMINISTRATIVE, 

AND TECHNICAL 

SUPPORT 



CLERICAL AND 
CLERICAL SUPERVISORY 



Percent Increase in 
Average Salaries for 
Professional, 
Administrative, and 
Technical Support 
Occupations: 
March 1975- 
March 1976 



ACCOUNTANTS 

AUD I TORS 

CHIEF 
ACCOUNTANTS 

ATTORNEYS 



BUYERS 

JOB 
ANALYSTS 

D I RECTORS 
OF PERSONNEL 

CHEMISTS 



ENGINEERS 

ENGINEERING 
TECHNICIANS 

DRAFTING 



5.8 



5.4 



6 . 4 



9.0 



7.0 



5.5 
5.4 



6.3 



8.3 



6. 7 



6. 1 





MARCH: 




1971 to 1972 




1972 to 1973 




1973 to 1974 




1974 to 1975 

1975 to 1976 



5.4 



6 .4 



9.6 



7 .3 



-i 1 1 r 

4 5 6 7 
PERCENT INCREASE 



6 . 4 



] 5. 5 
^J6.6 
6 . 1 
|6.7 



6.0 



7 .8 



| 6 . 6 
| 6 .8 



8. 1 



37.4 



1 

5 1 

PERCENT INCREASE 



Percent Increase in 

Average Salaries for 

Clerical and 

Clerical Supervisory 

Occupations: 

March 1975-March 1976 



CLERKS, 
ACCOUNT I NG 



CLERKS. 
FILE 



KEYPUNCH 
OPERATORS 



KEYPUNCH 
SUPERV I SORS 



MESSENGERS 



STENOGRAPHERS 



TYPISTS 



10 



1 1 



12 









7 . 2 










6. 4 










7 .6 








7 .5 








7 . 4 








1 8.0 








7 . 1 


I 





10 



PERCENT INCREASE 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



12 PERSONAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURES 



Spending for Services 
Paces $7.9 Billion 
Rise in 2nd Quarter 

Slightly over half of the 
S7.9 billion increase in 
personal consumption ex- 
penditures in the second 
quarter of 1976 occurred 
in services, which rose $4 
billion to $365.8 billion 
at an annual rate. The 
housing component 



accounted for $1.7 billion 
of the increase. 

Household operation ex- 
penditures rose $0.3 billion, 
and transportation at $29.5 
billion remained unchanged 
from the first quarter. 

Durable goods expenditures 
rose for the sixth consecu- 
tive quarter, although the 
increase of $0.9 billion 
was down sharply from the 
$6.3 billion rise in the 



first quarter. Increases 
of $0.4 billion in motor 
vehicles and parts and 
$0.6 billion in furniture 
and household equipment 
were partly offset by de- 
clines in other components. 

Expenditures for non- 
durable goods recorded a 
$3 billion increase to an 
annual rate of $317.6 bil- 
lion. Food, rising $2.4 
billion to a record $157.7 



billion, accounted for over 
three-fourths of the in- 
crease. After rising to a 
record level of $63.4 bil- 
lion in the last quarter of 
1975, clothing and shoes 
expenditures have declined 
a total of $0.8 billion. 
Gasoline and oil increased 
$0.4 billion to an annual 
rate of $25.4 billion. 



400 



350 



300 



250 



200 



150 



100 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 



— Components of 
Nondurable Goods 





FOOD 



'CLOTHING ANDSHOES 





BILLIONS OF 


1972 


50LLARS 














TT 


















Services 




















































r TOTAL 
























































































































































h 


OUSING [ . 
























1 uu ~ 






















50 - 












HOUSEHOLD OPERATION 








' ' 
















n 












TRANSPORTATION 

. ■ . 1 i i i 1 i i i 1 i i ■ 


1 1 1. 



1967 1968 T969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



150 



100 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 




1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





2ND 


1ST 


2ND 


PERSONAL CONSUMPTION 


QTR 


QTR 


QTR 


EXPENDITURES 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




Durable Goods, Total 


108.4 


124.3 


125.2 


Motor Vehicles and Parts 


41.9 


54.8 


55.2 


Furniture and Household Equipment 


49.1 


51.0 


51.6 


Nondurable Goods, Total 


307.2 


314.6 


317.6 


Food 


151.2 


155.3 


157.7 


Clothing and Shoes 


61.0 


63.3 


62.6 


Gasoline and Oil 


25.5 


25.0 


25.4 


Services, Total 


351.8 


361.8 


365.8 


Housing 


127.9 


132.1 


133.8 


Household Operation 


50.4 


51.1 


51.4 


Transportation 


28.7 


29.5 


29.5 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



Labor Force Grows 
Faster Than New Jobs; 
Women Workers Up 

In August, the civilian labor 
force grew faster than ci- 
vilian employment for the 
third consecutive month. 
An additional 154,000 work- 
ers joined the labor force, but 
employment increased by only 
74,000. This meant that an 
additional 80,000 workers 



were unemployed in August. 
Although in the past 3 months, 
civilian employment has in- 
creased from 87.7 million to 
88 million, the increase in 
the civilian labor force from 
94.6 million to 95.5 million 
has been about three times 
greater during the same 
period. Over 70 percent of 
the 3-month 930,000 increase 
in the labor force has occurred 
among female workers. 



Total Jobless Rate 
Up to 7.9% in August; 
Third Straight Rise 

The overall unemployment rate 
edged upward from 7.8 percent 
in July to 7.9 percent in 
August, the third consecu- 
tive monthly increase since 
the 1976 low of 7.3 percent 
reached in May. 

The jobless rate of house- 
hold heads declined to 5.2 



13 

percent, down from last 
month's 1976 high of 5.4 
percent. All of the decline, 
however, occurred among male 
household heads, whose rate 
dropped from 4.9 percent to 
4.5 percent. The rate among 
female household heads climb- 
ed from 7.7 percent in July 
to 8 percent in August, the 
third consecutive monthly 
increase. 



I00 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



Civilian Labor Force and Employment 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Persons 




Civilian Labor Force 


93.2 


95.3 


95.5 


Civilian Employment 


85,3 


87.9 


88.0 


Adult Males 


47.7 


48.5 


48.7 


Adult Females 


30.6 


32.0 


32.0 


Teenagers (ages 16-19) 


7.0 


7.4 


7.3 


Civilian Unemployment 


7.9 


7.4 


7.5 


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 




Percent 




All Workers, Total 


8.5 


7.8 


7.9 


Full Time Workers 


8.1 


7.3 


7.5 


Household Heads 


5.7 


5.4 


5.2 


White, Total 


7.8 


7.1 


7.1 


Adult Males 


6.3 


5.7 


5.5 


Adult Females 


7.2 


6.9 


7.0 


Teenagers 


18.7 


16.3 


17.3 


Black and Other, Total 


14.3 


12.9 


13.6 


Adult Males 


11.6 


10.3 


9.9 


Adult Females 


12.6 


11.7 


12.3 


Teenagers 


37.6 


34.1 


40.2 



14 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



Unemployment Rates 
Increase for Teens and 
Black Adult Women 

In August, increased rates 
of unemployment were concen- 
trated among teenagers and 
black adult women. The job- 
less rate of white teenagers 
rose to 17.3 percent; the 
rate among black teenagers 
jumped over 6 percentage 
points, nearly equaling the 



record unemployment rate of 
40.3 percent in June. The 
unemployment rate of black 
adult females rose from 11.7 
percent to 12.3 percent, the 
highest level since the 12.6- 
percent rate recorded a year 
ago. 

The jobless rate of black 
adult males, however, dropped 
from 10.3 percent to 9.9 
percent, continuing the over- 
all decline since November 



1975, during which the black 
adult male unemployment rate 
has decreased nearly 23 per- 
cent. 

Joblessness among white 
adult females edged up from 
6.9 percent to 7 percent, 
the third consecutive monthly 
increase. White adult male 
unemployment decreased to a 
5.5-percent rate, which, by 
offsetting increased unem- 
ployment in other sectors of 



the white labor force, held 
the overall unemployment 
rate of whites at last 
month's level of 7.1 percent. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




TEENAGERS, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 



TEENAGERS, WHITE 



ADULT FEMALES, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 

ADULT MALES, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 



ADULT FEMALES, WHITE 
ADULT MALES, WHITE 



1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1974 



1975 



1976 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



15 



Blue-, White-Collar 
Jobless Rates Rise 
0.2% in August 

In August, the overall white- 
collar jobless rate reached 
5 percent for the first time 
since May 1975. Clerical 
workers, the largest white- 
collar component, showed an 
unemployment rate of 7 per- 
cent, which represents nearly 
a 15-percent rate increase 



over the last 2 months. 

The increase in the blue- 
collar jobless rate from 9.6 
percent to 9.8 percent was 
mainly the result of offset- 
ting movements. A rise from 
13.2 percent to 14.8 percent 
in the jobless rate of nonfarm 
laborers was partly offset 
by a decline from 7.4 percent 
to 7 percent in the craft 
and kindred workers rate. 



Construction Jobless 
Rate Down; Trade and 
Manufacturing Up 

Divergent movements occurred 
in the unemployment rates 
among major industry groups. 
The unemployment rate in 
construction dropped from 
17.7 percent to 17.1 percent. 
Also, joblessness in trans- 
portation and public 
utilities dipped below 



5 percent, reversing the 
trend of the last 3 months. 

In addition to a rate 
increase from 8.5 percent 
to 9 percent in wholesale 
and retail trade, the job- 
less rate in manufacturing 
rose from 7.8 to 8.2 percent, 
with roughly equal jobless 
rate increases occurring in 
the durable and nondurable 
sectors. 



25 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



20 



Unemployment Rates, by Occupation 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 



BY OCCUPATION 
White-Collar Workers 

Clerical Workers 
Blue-Collar Workers 
Nonfarm Laborers 
Craft and Kindred 
Workers 



4UG 


JULY 


AUG 


1975 


1976 


1976 




Percent 




4.6 


4.8 


5.0 


6.5 


6.7 


7.0 


11.9 


9.6 


9.8 


16.2 


13.2 


14.8 




Q I t ■ i ■ » i I ■ | i ■ ■ i ■ i ■ ■ i I | i i i i i », i i ■ ■ I i i i i t I iii 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



25 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



20 



I l^ \^ 

Unemployment Rates, by Industry 

I I I 



AUG JULY AUG 
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 1975 1976 1976 



Percent 



BY INDUSTRY 
Construction 

Wholesale and Retail Trade 
Manufacturing 
Transportation and 
Public Utilities 




-\- TRANSPORTATION AND- 
PUBLIC UTILITIES 



i i t i i i « t I » t i i t t i i * i i I t t 



I I 1 I I I I I 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



16 HELP-WANTED INDEX & AVERAGE WORKWEEK 



Job Supply Improves 
as Help-Wanted Index 
Rises 2 Points in July 

The index of help-wanted 
advertising, reflecting an 
increasing supply of jobs, 
rose 2 points in July to 98; 
the third consecutive monthly 
increase. The rise in July 
of the overall unemployment 
rate from 7.5 percent to 
7.8 percent is a reflection 



of the faster increase in 
the demand for jobs than 
their availability, due to 
the rapid influx of new labor 
force participants. The 
volume of classified adver- 
tising in major newspapers, 
as measured by the index, 
has risen 24 points above 
the March -May 1975 low of 74, 
but remains 31 points below 
the high of 129 reached in 
July 1973. 



Factory Overtime Dips, 
but Average Workweek 
Steady at 36.2 Hours 

The average workweek for 
nonsupervisory workers on 
nonagricultural payrolls 
remained at 36.2 hours in 
August for the third time 
in the last 4 months. The 
workweek in the mining in- 
dustry, dropping 3 hours, 
showed the largest decline. 



Manufacturing declined to 
39.9 hours, but remained 
1.1 hours longer than the 
5-year low of 38.8 hours 
recorded in February 1975. 
Most of the decline in manu- 
facturing occurred in the 
overtime component, which 
dropped 0.2 hour to 3 hours. 
Small increases in most of 
the other component indus- 
tries offset the mining and 
manufacturing decreases. 



130 



INDEX 




46 



AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS 



■ ■■■ ■■■■■'■ ■ I ■ ■ i ■ i ■ i ■ . ■ i I i i i i i I i i i . ■ i ■ ■ i i i I i ] . i ] i i i i i i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


HELP WANTED INDEX 


1975 


1976 


1976 


Index of Help-Wanted Advertising 








(Index, 1967=100) 


84 


96 


98 




AUG. 


JULY 


AUG. 


AVERAGE WORKWEEK 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Average Weekly Hours 




Total Private Nonagricultural 


36.2 


36.2 


36.2 


Mining 


41.8 


42.8 


39.8 


Manufacturing 


39.7 


40.2 


39.9 


Factory Overtime 


2.8 


3.2 


3.0 



Average Weekly Hours of Production 
— or Nonsupervisory Workers on- 



Private Nonagricultural Payrolls, by Industry 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS 



Factory Overtime 
























y 


/^w. 


\\ 




At* 


^V 


■ » • » * 


> • 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 i 1 


y N 


^ 


T 

iitil unit 



SOURCE THE CONFERENCE BOARD 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



LABOR TURNOVER IN MANUFACTURING 



Both Separation 
and Accession Rates 
Hit 4 per 100 in July 

The total separation rate- 
permanent or temporary ter- 
minations of employment- 
climbed to 4 per 100 workers 
in July. This was the highest 
rate since November 1975. 

Total accessions (addi- 
tions)— permanent and 
temporary workers including 



both new and rehired em- 
ployees—rebounded in July 
to a rate of 4 per 100 
workers after 3 consecutive 
months of decline. 



Layoffs, Quits Decline 
in July; New Hire Rate 
Remains Unchanged 

The layoff rate declined to 
1.2 percent, the first de- 
cline since February. Since 
last July, layoffs have 
dropped 20 percent. 

The quit rate, which 
partially reflects worker 
assessment of job opportuni- 
ties, declined to 1.7 percent, 



17 

the first drop since 
December 1975. 

The rate of new hires has 
remained at 2.7 percent 
since April. July's hires 
are still 7 percent below 
March's rate of 2.9 percent, 
which is the highest level 
since the 3-percent rate in 
September 1974. 



RATE PER 100 EMPLOYEES 



RATE PER 100 EMPLOYEES 















Labor 


■ Turnover 


n Manufact 


uring 




















TC 


TALSEPAR 


ATIONS— / 








^ 


/^"H, 














^m ** ^ 






v^-^ 






1 








TC 


)TAL ACCES 


SIONS \ 

















































































1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 















Separ 


ations 
































































































^W- 


duits 








xsy 














^— 


.AYOFFS 






























1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



LABOR TURNOVER 


JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


IN MANUFACTURING 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Percent 




ACCESSION RATE, TOTAL 


4.2 


3.8 


4.0 


New Hires 


2.4 


2.7 


2.7 


SEPARATION RATE, TOTAL 


4.0 


3.8 


4.0 


Quits 


1.5 


1.8 


1.7 


Layoffs 


1.5 


1.3 


1.2 





RATE PER 100 EMPLOYEES 
























Access 


sions 










O ~| 




























D 




















k NEWI- 


IIRES 










/ 


N^ 


< , 










•/ 




\ 






o - 1 


-y 


r y 




\ 




A- 




r*^ 






\ 


1* 


J 


Z 








) 


\J 


















1 














n j 


i 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 p 1 1 1 1 1 






i i i i i i i ■ ■ ■ i 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



HYPERTENSION 



High Blood Pressure 
Affects 1 of Every 5 
Adults in America 

Findings from the National 
Health and Nutrition Ex- 
amination Survey (1971-1974) 
indicate that hypertension 
is more prevalent among 
blacks than among whites at 
all age levels. At the 
younger ages, more cases of 
hypertension were found 



among males than among fe- 
males, while the condition 
appeared more prevalent 
among females at the older 
ages. 

Based on the results of 
the survey, an estimated 
22.2 million persons (or 
almost 1 in every 5) between 
the ages of 18 and 74 years 
were found to have definite 
hypertension. An additional 



3.7 million persons reported 
taking medication regularly, 
and apparently had their 
blood pressure under control. 

Public awareness of 
hypertension has been grow- 
ing, boosted by the estab- 
lishment of the National High 
Blood Pressure Education 
Program in 1972. Approxi- 
mately one-half of the 
persons identified in the 
national health survey as 



having definite hypertension 
had not been previously 
aware of their condition, 
as compared to a decade ago 
when approximately two-thirds 
of those diagnosed were 
unaware of their disease. 
During the period 1971-1974, 
a higher percentage of males 
than females were not aware 
that they had hypertension. 



RATE PER 


100 PERSONS 


















































Persons Identified as Having Definite 




59 - 


Hypertension, by Age, Race, and Sex: 
1971-1974 




55 






50 50 


5 1 










"" ._. 


n 


— 














1 WHITE 












42 




- 


BLACK 


















" ^37 


















- 














35 
























31 














32 










-- 




















28 














- 






26 




































-- 






































- 


1 Q 


























19 














_ 


"" 






1 7 




























n 














- 


8 






























10 


10 

■ 




















- 


5 5 


1 
















_ 










Jl ■ 




1 






_j 






_ 








- 



18-24 25-34 



35-44 45-54 
MALE 



55-64 65-74 



18-24 



25-34 



35-44 45-54 
FEMALE 



55-64 



65-74 



PERCENT 




25-34 



35-44 45-54 
FEMALE 



65-74 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



SELECTED CURRENT VITAL STATISTICS 



19 



Birth Rate Declines 2% 
in First Half of '76; 
Death Rate Steady 

During June 1976, the birth 
rate was 14.2 per 1,000 
population, or about 2 per- 
cent below the rate for June 

1975. The cumulative rate 
for the first 6 months of 

1976, also 14.2 per 1,000, 
was 2 percent below the same 
period in 1975. 



BIRTHS PER 1 ,000 
POPULATON 



The June death rate was 
8.4 per 1,000, about 4.5 
percent below June 1975; 
however, the cumulative rate 
for January to May 1976 
(9.5 per 1,000) was the same 
for the corresponding period 
in 1975. The effect of a 
higher cumulative rate for 
influenza and pneumonia 
during the first 5 months 
of 1976 was offset by a 
continuing downturn in the 



rates for a number of other 
causes. The death rate for 
homicide posted the largest 
relative decline— from 9.8 
per 100,000 in 1975 to 8.1 
per 100,000 during January- 
May 1976. 

Infant deaths in June, 
at 14.8 per 1,000 live births, 
were down sharply from the 
June 1975 rate of 16.3 per 
1,000. 



INFANT DEATHS PER 1,000 
LIVE BIRTHS 





JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



12 



DEATHS PER 1 , 000 
POPULATON 



10 - 



8- 



6 - 



4 - 



2 - 



Death Rate 




1975' 



VITAL STATISTICS 



JUNE 
1975 



MAY 
1976 



JUNE 
1976 



Birth Rate* 
Death Rate* 

Infant Mortality Rate* 
*Not seasonally adjusted. 



Per 1,000 Population 
14.5 13.9 14.2 



8.6 



8.4 



Per 1,000 Live Births 
16.3 15.3 14.8 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



20 U.S. POPULATION 



Census Bureau Says 
U.S. Population Was 
214.8 Million August 1 

The resident population 
refers to all persons living 
in the 50 States and con- 
forms to the concept of the 
United States population 
as defined in the census 
reports. The total U.S. 
population is comprised of 
the resident population of 



the 50 States, plus members 
of the Armed Forces stationed 
in foreign countries and 
outlying areas. The civilian 
population consists of the 
resident population less 
the Armed Forces stationed 
in the United States. 

On August 1, 1976, the 
civilian population of the 
United States was about 
213.1 million— an increase of 
153,000 over the July 



figure. In addition, there 
were approximately 1.6 million 
members of the Armed Forces 
stationed in the United 
States on August 1 , and 
about half a million 
stationed overseas. 



250 



MILLIONS Of PERSONS 



200 



150 



100 



50 



Population of 
Including Arm 
July 1. 1900-. 


the United States 
ed Forces Overse; 
uly 1, 1976 


is: 













































































1900 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



198( 





JULY 1, 


AUG. 1, 


U.S. POPULATION 


1976 


1976 




Thousands of Persons 


Total Population, Including 






Armed Forces Overseas 


215,118 


215,276 


Resident Population 


214,619 


214.808 


Civilian Population 


212,976 


213,129 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



LIFETIME BIRTH EXPECTATIONS OF U.S. MARRIED WOMEN 



S.5 



(.0 



!.5 



!.0 



.5 



Birth Expectations 
Continue To Decline for 
Currently Married Women 

Between 1967 and 1976, the 
average number of lifetime 
births expected by American 
wives 1 8 to 24 years of age 
decreased about 25 percent, 
from 2.9 births per woman 
to 2.1 births. This compares 
with a 27-percent decline in 
expected births for married 

CHILDREN PER 

CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMAN 



women 25 to 29 years old, 
and a 23-percent decrease 
for wives 30 to 34 years of 
age. The rate of decline 
in expected births was sub- 
stantially lower (9 percent) 
for wives 35 to 39 years of 
age whose prime childbearing 
years were during the peak 
of the post-Second World 
War "baby boom" in the late 
1950's and early 1960's. 



Average Births Expected 
for Young Single Women 
Less Than 2.3 

In June 1976, both white and 
black single women 18 to 24 
years of age expected fewer 
than 2.3 lifetime births per 
woman. For both races, this 
rate is only slightly less 
than the number of births 
expected by currently married 
women in the same age group. 



21 

A greater difference in ex- 
pected births appears between 
single white and black women 
in the 30- to 34-year age 
group. Single white women 
expected an average of 0.6 
lifetime births per woman 
compared with 2.0 expected 
births per single black 
woman. This is due to the 
difference in the number of 
births to date for the two 
groups. 



"^ -,~t, 

*^_ . """"" 



35-39 Years 



.0 



I. 5 



i.O 



'■"••• 



""""'""".„„„„ 










^ 30-34 Years 
""^ 



""""■linn, 




Average Lifetime Births Expected 
. per Currently Married Woman. 
18 to 39 Years: February 
1967-June 1976 



(DISCONTINUOUS SERIES) 



AGE 

18 to 24 Years 
25 to 29 Years 
30 to 34 Years 
35 to 39 Years 



Births per 
Currently Married Woman 

2.9 2.4 2.1 

3.0 2.6 2.2 

3.3 3.0 2.5 

3.3 3.3 3.0 



1967 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



Births to Date and Lifetime 
Births Expected for Women 
18 to 34 Years: June 1976 



1 



ADDITIONAL 
BIRTHS EXPECTED 

BIRTHS TO DATE 



H 1 r- 



-I 1 h 



White 




18-24 YEARS 

MARRIED (NOT SEPARATED) 

WIDOWED, DIVORCED, SEPARATED 

SINGLE 

25-29 YEARS 

MARRIED (NOT SEPARATED) 

WIDOWED, DIVORCED, SEPARATED 

SINGLE 

30-34 YEARS 

MARRIED (NOT SEPARATED) 

WIDOWED, DIVORCED, SEPARATED 

SINGLE 



3 2 1 

CHILDREN PER WOMAN 




1 2 3 

CHILDREN PER WOMAN 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



22 VOTING-AGE POPULATION 



150 Million Americans 
Old Enough To Vote in 
Presidential Election 

The Bureau of the Census 
estimates there will be 
a total of 1 50 million Amer- 
icans old enough to vote in 
the November election. The 
figure is nearly 10 million 
more than the voting age 
population at the time of 
the 1972 Presidential 



election. This is only half 
the increase that occurred 
between the 1 968 and 1 972 
Presidential elections when 
the voting-age population 
grew by 20 million persons. 

Most of the earlier growth 
was attributed to lowering 
the voting-age require- 
ment to age 18, and also to 
the large number of persons 
born during the post-war 



years who reached the age 
of majority. 

About one-third, or 48 
million, of the persons of 
voting age live in the South. 
A little over one-fourth live 
in the North Central States, 
and a little under one- 
fourth in the Northeast. 
About one-sixth of the per- 
sons 1 8 and over live in 
the West. 






In November four States 
will have voting-age popu- 
lations of over 8 million 
people: California, 15.3 
million; New York, 12.9 
million; Texas, 8.5 million; 
Pennsylvania, 8.4 million. 

Two states— Florida and 
California— will have added 
more than 1 million persons of 
voting age between elections. 





















42 












36.8 


. 5 


SOUTH 


















1 47 . 9 












2 
40 















33 . 1 




Population of Voting Age, by 
Region: November 1968, 
1972, and 1976 


NORTH 
CENTRAL 




38 










I 


















30. 1 




1 

. 2 


NORTHEAST 








■ 34 




c 


1968 
1972 
1976 










■ ' 






20.3 


1 24.3 










WEST 














| 27 .0 






I 1 










i 






I 



10 



20 



30 40 

MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



50 



60 



CAL I FORN I A 

NEW YORK 

TEXAS 

PENNSYLVANIA 

ILLINOIS 

OHIO 

FLORIDA 

M I CH I GAN 

NEW JERSEY 

MASSACHUSETTS 



15.3 



12.9 



8. 5 
8.4 



7 . 7 
7 . 5 



6.3 Ten States With the 
Largest Populations 

6 3 of Voting Age: 
November 1976 



5 . 2 



4 . 2 



~i 1 r~ 

5 10 15 
MILLIONS OF PERSONS 











CAL I FORN 1 A 




1 ,325 












FLORIDA 




1 ,084 












TEXAS 




848 












M 1 CH 1 GAN 




400 


Ten States With Largest 
Increase Over 1972: 
November 1976 






551 


NORTH 
CAROL 1 NA 




; 








OHIO 




336 








V 1 RG 1 N 1 A 




326 






77 


GEORG 1 A 




7 








ARIZONA 




260 








NNSYLVANIA 




248 


















i 




i 





20 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



400 800 1 , 200 1 ,60 
INCREASE IN THOUSANDS 



Special Feature 



education 



23 



This month's special feature 
focuses on the status of 
education in the United States. 
It' is the primary activity of 
more than 63 million 
Americans and a full-time 
endeavor for most of our 
young people. For many, on- 
the-job training supplements 
normal work experiences. 
In addition, adult and 
continuing education enrich 
the leisure-time activities 
of numerous persons. 

Educated individuals 
make decisions about educa- 
tional opportunities for 
others. They also parti- 
cipate in society as parents, 
voters, and wage earners. 
In spite of the ambiguity 
regarding the precise effects 
of educational experiences, 
it is thought that educa- 
tion alters the manner in 
which persons fill these 
roles. 

Education in America is 
believed to be a device for 
achieving some of the most 
cherished goals of American 
society, including equal 
opportunity and social and 
political participation. 
This belief is reflected in 
the country's commitment to 
education. State laws not 
only provide free public 
education, but also require 
that all able young people 
participate. In 
addition, large numbers 
of schools and agencies 
offer opportunities for 
postsecondary study. 

The major growth areas of 
participation in the American 
educational system are at 
the preprimary and higher 
levels; participation rates 
in elementary and secondary 
education are already high. 

Most of the statistics 
in this section are taken 
from two National Center 
For Education Statistics 
reports— the annual 
chartbook. The Condition 
of Education, 1975 edition, 
and Digest o f Education 
Statistics, 1975 
edition. Both of these 
reports include material 
available from other Govern- 
ment agencies, with 
appropriate sources cited. 

The data from opinion 
polls have been used with 
the permission of the 
National Opinion Research 
Center and the Gallup Poll. 
Scholastic Aptitude Test 
results are reported with 
the permission of the 
College Entrance Examina- 
tion Board. 



American Education 
Overview 

Population of School- Age 
Groups- Estimates and 
Projections: Selected 
Years, 1950-1985 24 

Expenditures for Education as 
a Percent of GNP: Selected 
Years, 1929-1974 24 

Percent of Population Ages 
5 to 17 Enrolled in Public, 
Elementary, and Secondary 
Schools: Selected Years, 
1950-1974 24 

Participation: 
Preprimary Education 

Number of Children 3 to 5 
Years Old and Percent 
Enrolled in Preprimary 
Programs: 1966-1975 25 

Distribution of Preprimary 

Enrollment of Children 

3 to 5 Years Old, by 

Selected Characteristics: 

October 1975 

By Con trot o f Program 25 

By Full-Day and Part-Day 

Attendance 25 

By Family Income 25 

Participation: Higher 
Education 

Participation in Higher 
Education: 1960-1974 26 

Enrollment in Higher 
Education: 1960-1975 26 

Participation: 
Postsecondary Education 

Changes in Postsecondary 

Participation of the High 

School Class of 1972, by 

Parental Income: 

October 1972-October 

1973 27 

Parental Income Over 

$18,000 27 

Parental Income Under 

$3,000 27 

Participation: Adult 
Education 

Participation in Adult 
Education: Selected Years 
(Percent of Population 17 



and Older Enrolled) 28 

Participation in Adult 
Education, by Family Income: 
Year Ending May 1975 
(Percent of Population 
17 and Older in Each Income 
Group Enrolled) 28 

Reason for Taking Adult 
Education: Year Ending 
May 1975 28 

Educational Institutions 

Elementary and Secondary 
Schools: 1960-1975 29 

Institutions of Higher 
Education: Selected Years 29 

Noncollegiate Postsecondary 
Schools Offering Occupational 
Programs: 1973 29 

Educational Disparities 

High School Dropouts as a 
Percent of the Population 14 
to 24 Years Old: 
Selected Years 30 

Percent of Population Not 
Enrolled in School and Not 
High School Graduates: 
October 1975 30 

Percent of Minority Students 
Attending Public Schools with 
Different Racial Composition: 
1968, 1970, and 1972 30 

Special Educational Needs 

Children Participating in 
Federal Programs: 1972-73 31 

Federally Funded Services 
to Children From Low- Income 
Areas: 1972-73 31 

Achievement: Writing 
Performance 

Changes in Writing Performance 
for 9-, 13-, and 17-Year-Olds 32 

Achievement: Functional 
Literacy 

Basic Reading Performance— Test 
Scores of National Groups of 
17-Year-Olds 33 

Gain in Mean Percentage 
Correct: 1970-71 to 
1973-74 33 

Percentage of Maximum Possible 
Gain: 1970-71 to 1973-74 33 



Achievement: National 
Group Results 

Typical Educational 
Achievement of 17-Year- 
Olds: Selected Years 
from 1969-70 to 
1972-73 34 

Scholastic Aptitude 
Test Results 

Scholastic Aptitude Test 
Score Averages for College- 
Bound Seniors: 1966-67 to 
1975-76 35 

Public Views 
of Education 

Most Important Problems 
Facing Public Schools— Public 
Opinion: 1974-1976 36 

Confidence in the People 
Running Institutions— Public 
Opinion: 1973-1976 36 

Spending Levels for 
Education— Public 
Opinion: 1973-1976 37 

Attendance at Programs 
on Effects of Drugs- 
Public Opinion: 1975 37 

Cross-National Comparisons: 
Participation 

Average Years of Full-Time 
Education per Capita, by 
Population 15 and Over, by 
Country: Selected Years 38 

Entry Into Higher Education 
as a Percent of Relevant Age 
Group, by Country: 1970 
(Full-Time and Part-Time) 38 

Cross-National Comparisons: 
Role of Private Education 

Percent of Enrollment in 
Private Educational 
Institutions, by Level of 
Instruction, Selected 
Countries: 1970 39 

Cross-National Comparisons: 
Achievement 

Test Scores of 14- Year-Old 

Students on Achievement Test, 

by Country: 1970 

Literature 40 

Reading Comprehension 40 

Mathematics 40 

Science 40 



24 AMERICAN EDUCATION-OVERVIEW 



Lower U.S. Birth Rate 
Indicates Future Drop 
in School-Age Children 

The historical picture of 
American education has been 
one of expansion in numbers 
of students, instructors, 
and schools; however, this 
pattern will not continue 
since the age distribution 



of the population will 
change markedly in the 
foreseeable future. 

In 1974, the largest 
single concentration was in 
the 5-to 13-year-old group. 
As a consequence of the 
declining birth rate, this 
group, as it gets older, will 
continue to dominate the 
population. The traditional 
school-age population will 
decline in numbers, and the 



adult population will be, 
in contrast, substantially 
larger than it is now. 
Changes in the age 
distribution will have a 
less certain effect on 
higher education than on 
elementary and secondary 
education, in both of which 
participation is already 
at very high levels. 



Expenditures for formal 
education have risen 
spectacularly, to a point 
where they account for 
about 8 percent of the gross 
national product. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



Population of School-Age 
Groups— Estimates and 
Projections: Selected Years, 
1950-1985 



ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 
OF THE POPULATION 
1960 1975' 1985' 

Millions of Persons 

Under 5 Years 20.3 15.9 19.8 

5-13 Years 33.0 33.4 30.4 

14-17 Years 11.2 16.9 14.4 

18 24 Years 16.1 27.6 27.8 

25-34 Years 22.9 30.9 39.8 



"Series II projections 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 




1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1980 



198 



10 



PERCENT 



Exp 
of ( 


endit 

5NP: 


ures 1 
Seled 


or Ed 
:ed Y 


ucatic 
jars, 


in as 
1929 


a Pen 
1974 


:ent 











































































































100 



PERCENT 



90 H 
80 

70 - 
60 - 
50 - 
40 
30 
20 
10 




Percent of Population Ages 5 to 17 Enrolled in Public 
Elementary and Secondary Schools: 88 

Selected Years, 1950-1974 



183.2 



182.2 




1929 1937 1945 1953 1961 1969 1977 



1950 



1960 



1970 1972 1974 



SOURCE OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



PARTICIPATION: PREPRIMARY EDUCATION 



Nursery, Kindergarten 
Programs Enroll 48.7%; 
Up From 29.4% in 1966 

Considering the high levels 
of participation in primary 
and secondary education and 
the changing age distribu- 
tion of the population, the 
areas of continuing expan- 
sion in the educational 
system are found at the two 
extremes of the organized 



system— in services to pre- 
school children and adults. 
The percentage of child- 
ren 3 to 5 years old enrolled 
in preprimary programs has 
steadily increased from 
29.4 percent in 1966 (the 
first year of the survey) 
to 48.7 percent in 1975. 
The actual number of children 
enrolled increased by about 
35 percent, from 3.7 million 
to 5 million, while the 



number of 3- to 5-year-olds 
declined by 2.3 million to 
10.2 million. 

In October 1975, more than 
80 percent of all children 
enrolled in kindergarten 
were in public programs, 
whereas nearly 68 percent 
in prekindergarten were in 
nonpublic programs. 

Children from families 
with incomes of $10,000 and 
over represented almost 60 



25 

percent of children enrolled 
in preprimary programs. 
They were also enrolled at 
the highest rate (53.7 per- 
cent) of any income group. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



PERCENT ENROLLED 
50 




Number of Children 3 to 5 Years Old 
and Percent Enrolled in 
Preprimary Programs: 
1966-1975 



1966 



1969 



1972 



1975 



Distribution of Preprimary Enrollment of Children 3 to 5 Years Old, by Selected Characteristics: October 1975 



PERCENT 




By Control of Program 



67.3 



nonpublic! 



PUBLIC 



72.8 




38.0 



TOTAL WHITE BLACK 
K I NDERGARTEN 



TOTAL WHITE BLACK 
PREK I NDERGARTEN 



PERCENT 



100 



By Family Income 



90 - 
80 - 
70 - 
60 - 
50 
40 - 
30 - 
20 - 
10 - 




6.7 



59.5 



21.3 



12.5 



6.6 



65.4 



19.4 



8.6 



7.5 



26.4 



32.9 



33.2 



■INCOME NOT 
REPORTED 



FAMILY INCOME, 
$10,000 AND 
OVER 



FAMILY INCOME, 
$5,000-$9,999" 



FAMILY INCOME, 
UNDER $5,000 



TOTAL 



WHITE 



BLACK 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



26 PARTICIPATION: HIGHER EDUCATION 



2-Year Public Colleges 
Increase Enrollment 
5 Times from '60 to '75 

The dramatic increase in 
enrollment in higher educa- 
tion has been due not only 
to increased population but 
also to increasing rates of 
involvement. 

Enrollment in higher 
education as a percent of 
the population ages 1 8 to 



24 increased steadily from 
1960 to 1970, from 22.2 
percent to 32.1 percent. 
Between 1970 and 1974, the 
proportion remained fairly 
constant at around 32 percent. 
In 1975 it rose to around 
35 percent. 

Most of the growth in 
college and university en- 
rollments has been in public 
institutions, particularly 
public 2-year institutions, 



which increased five-fold 
between 1960 and 1975- 
from almost 394,000 
students enrolled for degree 
credit to 2.4 million. In 
contrast, between 1960 and 
1975, enrollment in public 
universities and other public 
4-year institutions increased 
from 1.7 million to 5 million, 
approximately a two-fold 
increase. 



PERCENT 



40 - 



30 - 



20 - 



10 - 



Participation in Higher Education: 

1960-1974 

( Percent of 18- to 

24- Year-Olds Enrolled) 



35. 2 



32 . 1 



27 . 2 



22 . 2 



ENROLLMENT IN 
HIGHER EDUCATION 



1960 



1975 



1960 1965 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

MILLIONS 



1970 



1975 





Enrollment in Millions 


Public Universities 


.992 


2.636 


All Other Public 4- Year 






Institutions 


.750 


2.390 


Public 2- Year Institutions 


.394 


2.401 


Private Universities 


.559 


.735 


All Other Private 4- Year 






Institutions 


.855 


1.463 


Private 2-Year Institutions 


.060 


.108 




PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES- 



ALL OTHER PUBLIC 
4-YEAR INSTITUTIONS' 

PUBLIC 2-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 



ALL OTHER PRIVATE 
4-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 



PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES 



PRIVATE 2 YEAR 
INSTITUTIONS 



1960 1962 



964 



1966 



1968 



1970 



1 972 



1974 



1976 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



1962-1966 Data not 
available separately. 



PARTICIPATION: POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION 



27 



4- Year College 
Continuation Rate 
Exceeds 70% 

Continuation of an educa- 
tional program a year and 
a half after entry was high- 
est among students who had 
entered 4-year colleges 
after high school, according 
to the National Longitudinal 
Study of the High School 



Class of 1972. This held 
true for both the highest 
and lowest income groups. 

Of graduates who had 
stayed out of school imme- 
diately after high school, 
a higher percentage from 
high-income families than 
from low-income families 
had entered school by 1973- 
22.2 percent and 8.9 per- 
cent, respectively. 



By 1973, students from 
families with incomes of 
less than $3,000 had dropped 
out of 4-year colleges and 
vocational and technical 
schools at higher rates than 
had students from the high- 
income group. 

During the one and one- 
half years following high 
school, movement between 
types of institutions was 



under 10 percent, except for 
the higher income group 
students who had started 
in 2-year colleges. 



Changes in Postsecondary Participation of the High School Class of 1972, by Parental Income: October 1972-October 1973 



ATTENDED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ATTENDED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

ATTENDED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

WERE NOT IN SCHOOL 

REMAINED OUT IN 1973 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 




50 
PERCENT 



100 



ATTENDED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ATTENDED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

ATTENDED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

CONTINUED IN 1973 

LEFT SCHOOL 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 

WERE NOT IN SCHOOL 

REMAINED OUT IN 1973 

ENTERED VOC.-TECH. SCHOOLS 

ENTERED 2-YEAR COLLEGES 

ENTERED 4-YEAR COLLEGES 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 




100 



28 PARTICIPATION: ADULT EDUCATION 



Continuing Education 
Courses Draw 13.3% 
of Adults in 1975 

Participation of adults in 
formal instruction has in- 
creased considerably over 
the last 18 years. 

The rate at which adults 
participate in "continuing" 
or "recurrent" education has 
grown from 7.8 percent in 
1957 to 13.3 percent in 1975. 



There are many reasons 
for becoming involved in 
adult education. Partici- 
pants cite, in particular, 
the desire for occupational 
mobility. When asked their 
principal reason for engaging 
in adult education, 41 .8 
percent of participants in 
1975 cited job improvement 
or advancement. Personal 
or family interests were 
the next most common reply. 



Participation rates in 
adult education have been 
found to vary with family 
income level. In 1975, 
participation rates ranged 
from 5.2 percent among those 
with family incomes of less 
than $5,000 to 17.7 percent 
among those with incomes of 
$25,000 or more. 



25 



20 



PERCENT 



15 - 



10 



Participation in Adult Education: 
Selected Years (Percent of Population 17 
and Older Enrolled *) 



10.9 



7.8 



13.3 



12.4 



LESS THAN 
$5 . 000 



$5 , 000-$7 , 499 



$7 . 500-$9 . 999 



$10,000-$14,999 



$15,000-$24,999 



$25,000 
AND MORE 



5. 2 



8.4 



Participation in Adult 
Education, by Family 
Income: Year Ending 
May 1975 (Percent of 
Population 17 and Older 
in Each Income Group 
Enrolled *) 



11.5 



12.9 



15.9 



17.7 



1957 1969 1972 

"Excludes Those Enrolled as Full-Time Students 



1975 



- r— 
10 



1 

15 
PERCENT 



20 



— r— 
25 



30 



FOR GENERAL 
INFORMATION 



TO IMPROVE 

OR ADVANCE 

IN JOB 



FOR PERSONAL 

OR FAMILY 

INTEREST 



FOR SOCIAL OR 

RECREATIONAL 

REASONS 



OTHER AND 
NOT REPORTED 



13.7 



Reason for Taking Adult 
Education: Year Ending 
May 1975 



41.8 




11.5 



27 .7 



20 



30 

PERCENT 



— r~ 
40 



50 



60 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



29 



Public 2-Year 
Institutions Grow in 
Higher Education 

Consolidation of schools 
and administrative units at 
all levels in recent years 
has resulted in larger 
schools. 

Most of the decline in 
the number of public ele- 
mentary schools over the 
last 15 years reflects the 



closing of one-teacher 
schools. The numbers of 
public secondary and non- 
public elementary and 
secondary schools also have 
declined slightly from the 
high totals reached in the 
1960's. 

The institutional char- 
acter of higher education 
is changing, due primarily 
to the tremendous increase 



in the number of public 
2-year institutions which 
has more than doubled. 
Four-year institutions have 
grown by about 35 percent. 
The percentage of 2-year 
institutions which are under 
public control has increased 
from 55.5 percent in 1958 
to 78.3 percent in 1974. 
However, the majority of 
noncollegiate postsecondary 



schools offering occupa- 
tional programs are private. 
Of 8,846 institutions in 
1973, 7,953 were private. 



THOUSANDS 



Elementary and Secondary 
Schools: 1960-1975. 




-TOTAL PUBLIC 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



PUBLIC SECONDARY 
SCHOOLS 





Institutions of Higher Education 
Selected Years 

4-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 




1958 








1 ,400 


1962 






1 


,472 


1966 






1 


,567 


1970 






1 , 


676 


1974 






1 ,887 




2-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 




1958 






557 


1962 






628 
68 


I PUBLIC 


1966 






5 ! PRIVATE 


1970 






897 


r 


1974 






1,151 




I I 






1 






I I 1 



19601962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 



500 



1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 
NUMBER OF INSTITUTIONS 



VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL | 

TECHNICAL INSTITUTE J §2 15 

BUS I NESS-COMMERC I AL 

COSMETOLOGY-BARBER 

FLIGHT 

TRADE 



] 1 . 167 



Noncollegiate Postsecondary 
Schools Offering Occupational 
Programs: 1973 



1 ,242 



2,405 



1 ,483 



708 



HOME STUDY [ ] 1 30 
HOSP I TAL 
OTHERS 



e 



] 1 . 247 



B 



PUBLIC 
PRIVATE 



249 



— I — 1 "I 1 1 1 

500 1,000 1.500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



30 EDUCATIONAL DISPARITIES 



High School Dropout 
Rates High in 1975 
For Spanish, Blacks 

High school dropout rates 
were considerably higher in 
1975 for blacks and for 
whites between the ages of 
14 and 24. The rates were 
18.1 and 18.9 percent, 
respectively, for black 
males and females and 9.9 



percent, respectively, for 
white males and females. 
Almost 30 percent of 
Spanish-origin males and 
almost 36 percent of 
Spanish-origin females 
ages 14 to 34 were neither 
in school nor high school 
graduates in 1975. The 
rates for Spanish-origin 
persons 18 and 19 years of 
age were about 26 percent 
for males and almost 34 



percent for females, and 
the rates for blacks 18 and 
19 years of age were almost 
28 percent for males and 
about 23 percent for females. 

Advances between 1968 
and 1972 in public school 
integration were considerable 
in the southern States. 
The percentage of minority 
students attending 90- to 
100-percent minority schools 
declined from about 70 



percent to about 26 percent; 
the percentage of minority 
students attending 50- to 
89.9-percent minority 
schools increased from 9 
percent to about 31 percent; 
and the percentage of 
minority students attending 
0- to 49.9-percent minority 
schools increased from 
about 21 percent to about 
43 percent. 



High School Dropouts as a 
Percent of the Population 
14 to 24 Years Old: 
Selected Years 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Percent of Population Not 
Enrolled in School and 
Not High School Graduates: 
October 1975 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Percent of Minority Students 
of Different Racial Composition 
Attending Public Schools: 
1968, 1970, and 1972 



a n i 


PERCENT 














HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE 


1967 


■■ ■ ■ 

1975 




Black Males 


Percent of Population 
23.9 


14 to 24 
18.1 
18.9 

9.9 

11.0 




BLACK MALE 


Black Females 

White Males 
White Females 


21.9 

11.6 
13.1 






BLACK FEMALE '™""'"^^^^^^^^^^H 
^ WHITE FEMALE 


















10 - 
n - 


K ■ 

WHITE MALE 









1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 




MALE FEMALE 

TOTAL, AGES 14 TO 34 



MALE FEMALE 

16 AND 17 YEAR OLDS 



MALE 



FEMALE 



18 AND 19 YEAR OLDS 



1968 

CONTINENTAL U.S." 

NORTHERN AND WESTERN STATES 

BORDER STATES* 

SOUTHERN STATES 

1970 
CONTINENTAL U.S." 
NORTHERN AND WESTERN STATES 
BORDER STATES" 
SOUTHERN STATES ■ 
1972 
CONTINENTAL U.S." • 
NORTHERN AND WESTERN STATES 
BORDER STATES' 
SOUTHERN STATES 



0-49.9% MINORITY 





5a 89.9% MINORITY 



■4 1— 

90-100% MINORITY 



+ 



f 



+ 



10 20 30 

•INCLUDES THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. "EXCLUDES HAWAII. 



40 



50 
PERCENT 



60 



70 



80 



90 



100 



SOURCE \ATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS 



37% of Low-Income Area 
Children Get Federal 
Assistance 

School-age children (ages 
5-18) with special educa- 
tional needs received a 
variety of services during 
the 1972-73 school year 
through Federal programs 
administered by local edu- 
cational agencies (school 



districts). Thirty-seven 
percent of the estimated 

18 million pupils from low- 
income areas received 
assistance. The lowest rate 
of program participation was 

19 percent for the approxi- 
mately 1.1 million pupils 
from limited-or non-English- 
speaking environments. The 
highest rate of program 
participation was 77 percent 



for the approximately 250,000 
pupils who were children of 
migratory workers. 

About 60 percent of public 
and nonpublic school pupils 
from low-income areas who 
were provided special serv- 
ices through federally aided 
programs received assistance 
in reading (English). 
Assistance in natural 
sciences, mathematics, and 



31 

health services was pro- 
vided to 27 percent of these 
public school pupils from 
low-income areas. 



Children Participating 
in Federal Programs: 
1972-73 



CHILDREN FROM 
LOW INCOME AREAS 



HANDICAPPED CHILDREN 



CHILDREN FROM LIMITED 

OR NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING 

ENV I RONMENTS 



CHILDREN OF 
MIGRATORY WORKERS 



NEGLECTED AND 
DELINQUENT CHILDREN 



19 



37 



33 



ESTIMATED POPULATION 
18,241,624 

1,580,618 

1,147,396 



41 



7 7 249,125 



134,666 



Federally Funded 
Services to Children 
From Low-Income 
Areas: 



1972-73 



READING (ENGLISH) 



NATURAL SCIENCES- 
MATHEMAT I CS 



HEALTH SERVICES 



TESTING SERVICES 



ATTENDANCE- 
SCHOOL SOCIAL WORK 



PUPIL TRANSPORTATION 



VOCATIONAL SKILLS AND ATTITUDES 




60 
59 



STUDENTS PARTICIPATING 
BY CONTROL OF SCHOOL 



1 nr- 

_ 26 




27 



27 



PUBLIC: 6,068,212 
NONPUBLIC: 253,232 



22 



— r~ 
30 



~r 



T 



r - 

40 50 60 

PERCENT 



— r~ 
70 



— r - 
80 



— r~ 
90 



100 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



32 ACHIEVEMENT: WRITING PERFORMANCE 



Student Essay 
Quality Declining 
in U.S. 

The quality of essays 
written by American students 
has declined, according to 
the National Assessment of 
Educational Progress. The 
writing performance of 13- 
and 17-year-olds decreased 
between 1969-1973 and 
1969-1974, respectively. 



Essays written by national 
samples of 9-, 13-, and 
17-year olds were judged 
by experienced English 
teachers, who assigned each 
essay a holistic score 
ranging from 1 to 8 . The 
average of these scores 
for 13-year-olds declined 
from 5.0 to 4.7 and for 
17-year-olds from 5.1 to 
4.9. The performance of 
9-year olds increased; 



however, the increase was 
not statistically signifi- 
cant at the .05 percent 
confidence level. 

The score of 5 was re- 
ceived by 25.4 percent of 
1 3-year-olds in 1 969, but by 
only 20.6 percent of 13-year- 
olds in 1973. This score was 
achieved by 27.6 percent of 
17-year-olds in 1969, but 
only by 23.1 percent in 
1974. 



PERCENTAGE AT EACH HOLISTIC SCORE 



Changes in Writing 
Performance, for 9-, 13-, 
and 17-Year-Olds 




STUDENT 

GROUPS 1969 1970 1973 1974 

Percent at 
Holistic Score Five 

9-Year-Olds NA 12.7 NA 16.3 
13- Year-Olds 25.4 NA 20.6 NA 
17-Year-Olds 27.6 NA NA 23.1 



30 



25 



20 



15 



10 



PERCENTAGE AT EACH HOLISTIC SCORE 



NA Not available. 



I I 

13-YEAFi-OLDS: 1969 AND 1973 












1969 

1973 






/ 1 


..-^1 












,/ 


/ 1 
/ 1 




\ 








,d 


•• 


r I 

f 1 




1 


\ 




j£\ 




MEA 


N, 1973 

I 


MEAN, 196S 




\N 




*jr 






1 
1 

1 









30 



25 



PERCENTAGE AT EACH HOLISTIC SCORE 



17-YEAR-OLDS: 1969 AND 1974 



20 



1969 
1974 




SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



3 4 

(HOLISTIC SCORE) 



ACHIEVEMENT: FUNCTIONAL LITERACY 



33 



Students' Basic 
Reading Performance 
Improves 

The functional literacy of 
17-year-olds improved between 
1970-71 and 1973-74. On a 
set of reading exercises, 
the mean percentage of the 
national sample which re- 
sponded correctly relative 
to superior readers increased 
from 89. 15 to 91.16. The 



Basic 



greatest gain in mean per- 
centage correct was achieved 
by 17-year-olds whose 
parents never attended high 
school; the score of this 
group rose from 80.71 to 
85.36 

In 1973-74, 17-year-olds 
in the Central States had 
the highest score, 93.26 
percent, by region. Seven- 
teen-year-old females 
scored higher than males, 
Reading Performance 



and 17-year-old whites, higher 
than blacks. 

Between 1970-71 and 1973- 
74, the functional literacy of 
the national group of 17-year- 
olds improved 16.37 percent 
of the maximum amount 
that it could possibly improve. 
The percentage of maximum 
possible gain (PMPG), is the 
gain which would make the 
reader's literacy level equal to 
that of the superior readers. 



The largest PMPG, 28.21 per- 
cent, was posted by the ex- 
treme rural group. The smal- 
lest PMPG, 9.73 percent, was 
posted by the medium -size 
city group. 

Functional literacy was 
measured through the re- 
sponses of 17-year-olds to 
various types of reading 
materials, including coupons 
and graphs. 



10 



1 1 

Gain in Mean Percentage 
Correct: 1970-71 to 1973-74 


-I- 




H 


2.0 


1 








2 


.73 






1 


.56 




2.0" 


7 


1 


.43 










2 .49 






1 


. 52 I 


3.59 






2. 1( 


> 








4.65 






2. 


94 






1 .34 






0. 


78 




3.63 




4.11 






2 .39 








1 . 1 




: 


>.56 
2.27 








1 


62 




1 1 




-f- 




H 



Test Scores of National Groups of 17-Year-Olds 

10 



1973-74 
MEAN SCORE 

NATIONAL 
(91.16) 

REGION 

SOUTHEAST 
(88.08) 

WEST 
(90.33) 

CENTRAL 
(93.26) 

NORTHEAST 
(91.63) 

SEX 

MALE 
(90.24) 

FEMALE 
(92.02) 

RACE 

BLACK 
(79.08) 

WHITE 
(93.16) 

PARENTAL 
EDUCATION 

NO HIGH SCHOOL 
(85.36) 

SOME HIGH SCHOOL 

(87.95) 

GRADUATED 

HIGH SCHOOL 

(90.66) 

POST HIGH SCHOOL 

(94.01) 

SIZE AND TYPE 
OF COMMUNITY 

LOW METRO 
(87.17) 

EXTREME RURAL 

(91.24) 

SMALL PLACE 

(91.08) 
MEDIUM CITY 

(91.24) 

MAIN BIG CITY 

(91.90) 

URBAN FRINGE 
(92.40) 

HIGH METRO 
(95.89) 



20 



30 



40 



1 1 1 

Percentage of Maximum Possible Gain: 
1970-71 to 1973-74 




16.37 










1 16.18 




12.02 








21 .04 




i 13. 1 

















18 


. 12 




1 13. 


97 








12.9 






1 










20.77 












21.12 




17. ( 


39 




1 1 .02 




1 


0. 10 
















17.60 






28.21 




16 


.80 




9 


73 






21 . 39 




20. 


67 




24 .40 




-r- 


1 




— \ 



10 



6 4 

PERCENT 



10 



20 

PERCENT 



30 



40 



34 ACHIEVEMENT: NATIONAL GROUP RESULTS 



Southeast Scores 
Lowest by Region 

Typical educational achieve- 
ments of 17-year-olds vary 
according to their background 
characteristics. Those whose 
parents had little formal 
education performed below 
national levels, but those 
whose parents were well- 
educated performed well above 
national levels. Seventeen- 



year-olds in the Southeast 
had achievement levels below 
the Nation's, and those in 
the Northeast had achieve- 
ment levels above the Na- 
tion's. The latter was 
also the case for those in 
the Central region except 
in science. Achievement 
levels of 17-year-olds in 
the West were mixed; they 
were above national levels 
in science, writing, citizen- 



ship, and literature; but 
below national levels in 
reading, music, and social 
studies. 

Seventeen-year-old 
females had levels of 
achievement above their male 
counterparts in writing, 
reading, literature, and 
music. The typical educa- 
tional achievement of 17- 
year-old blacks in every 
assessment area was lower 



than that of whites. Seven- 
teen-year-olds living in low 
socioeconomic metropolitan 
communities had levels of 
achievement well below the 
national levels. 

Those in rural communities 
also had achievement levels 
below the Nation's, but those 
in affluent metropolitan 
communities had achievement 
levels well above the 
Nation's. 



Typical Educational Achievement 
of 17-Year-Olds: Selected Years 
from 1969-70 to 1972-73 



SCIENCE 

WRITING 

CITIZENSHIP 

READING 

LITERATURE 

MUSIC 

SOCIAL STUDIES 



PERCENT ABOVE 

NATIONAL 

LEVELS 



NATIONAL LEVELS 



PERCENT BELOW 

NATIONAL 

LEVELS 



15 



PERCENT 



10 - 



5 - 



-5 - 



-10 - 



-15 - 



-20 



By Sex 



n 



JCF^ 



"Ln- n ^ 



MALE 



FEMALE 



PERCENT 



15 



PERCENT 



10 - 



5 - 



-5 - 



10 - 



15 - 



-20 



15 



By Parental Education 



NO HIGH 
SCHOOL 



SOME 
HIGH SCHOOL 



GRADUATED 
HIGH SCHOOL 



POST 

HIGH SCHOOL 



PERCENT 



10 - 

5 - 



-5 - 

-10 - 

-15 - 

-20 



By Region 



H h _ n-n-m 

^M_l [| | | | i_] i 



rLrT7-ji 



WEST 



CENTRAL SOUTHEAST NORTHEAST 



10 - 



5 - 







-5 - 
-10 - 
-15 - 



-20 



By Race 



rfr-rrr-n 



BLACK 



WHITE 



PERCENT 




RURAL 



LOW SOCIO-ECONOMIC 
STATUS METRO 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST RESULTS 



35 



Test Score Averages 
for College-Bound 
Seniors Continue Decline 

Scholastic Aptitude Test 
(SAT) score averages* for 
college-bound seniors con- 
tinued their decline. Over 
the past year, the average 
score on one part of the 
test— the verbal portion- 
declined three points from 
434 to 431. The average 



score on the other part of 
the test— mathematical- 
remained at 472. 

Between 1966-67 and 1975- 
76, the score averages on 
the verbal portion declined 
from 463 to 433, or 6.5 per- 
cent, for men; and from 468 
to 430, or 8.1 percent, for 
women. The score averages 
on the mathematical portion 
declined from 514 to 497, 
or 3.3 percent, for men, and 



from 467 to 446, or 4.5 
percent, for women. 

Almost 1 million college- 
bound seniors in 1975-76 
took the SAT. It is used 
by colleges and universities 
around the country as one 
criterion for admission. 

*SAT is scored on a 
range of 200 to 800. 



SAT SCORE 


1966- 1970- 1975- 


AVERAGES 


67 71 76 




Average 


VERBAL 


Score 


Total 


466 455 431 


Male 


463 454 433 


Female 


468 457 430 



550 



AVERAGE SCORE 



MATHEMATICAL 

Total 492 488 472 

Male 514 507 497 

Female 467 466 446 



525 



500 



475 



450 



425 



400 



Scholastic Aptitude Test Score 
Averages for College-Bound Seniors: 
1966-67 to 1975-76 



MALE MATHEMATICAL 




TOTAL VERBAL 
i / 

FEMALE VERBAL. 



1967 1968 

SOURCE COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION BOARD 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



36 PUBLIC VIEWS OF EDUCATION 



Public Opinion Ranks 
Discipline First as 
Educational Problem 

"Discipline" has been viewed 
as the most important prob- 
lem facing public schools 
in the 1970's. National 
samples of the American 
people were asked in 1974, 
1975, and 1976, "What do you 
think are the biggest prob- 
lems with which the public 



schools in the community 
must deal?" According to 
the Gallup Polls of Attitudes 
Toward Education, "disci- 
pline," "integration/segre- 
gation," and "financial 
support," were cited by 
respondents for 3 years as 
the top major problems. 
Poor curriculum emerged in 
1 976 as another one of the 
top major problems. 



Public Confidence 
in Educational Staff 
Rises to 37% in '76 

Current public confidence 
in the people responsible 
for educational and other 
institutions in the United 
States is lower than in 
1974. There was a marked 
decline between 1974 and 
1975— partially offset by 
a rise between 1975 and 



1976 in the percentage of 
spondents who expressed 
confidence in those running 
educational institutions, 
according to the General 
Social Survey of the National 
Opinion Research Center; 
the percentage of respond- 
ents expressing "a great 
deal of confidence" declined 
from 49 percent in 1974 to 
30.9 percent in 1975, but 
rose to 37.2 percent in 1976. 



Most Important Problems Facing 
Public Schools— Public Opinion: 
1974-1976 



"What Do You Think Are the 
Biggest Problems With Which 
the Public Schools in This 
Community Must Deal?" 



SOURCE GALLUP POLL 



DISCIPLINE 



INTEGRATION- 
SEGREGATION 



FINANCIAL SUPPORT 



POOR CURRICULUM 



TEACHERS 



USE OF DRUGS 




1 r 

20 30 

PERCENT 



r 

40 



5( 



PERCENT 



Confidence in the People Running 
Institutions — Public Opinion: 
1973-1976 



Percent of Respondents 
Expressing "A Great 
Deal of Confidence" 



INSTITUTION 



1973 



1976 



Percent 



Medicine 
Education 

Scientific Community 
Major Companies 



53.8 


53.8 


36.8 


37.2 


36.7 


42.6 


29.2 


21.9 



100 




1973 



1 974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE NATIONAL OPINION RESEARCH CENTER; COPYRIGHT 



PUBLIC VIEWS OF EDUCATION 



37 



Half of Surveyed Group 
Thinks Too Little 
Is Spent on Education 

Too little money is being 
spent to improve education, 
according to about half 
the respondents in 
the General Social Survey. 
Responding to the question, 
"Are we spending too much, 
too little, or about the 
right amount on improving 



the Nation's educational 
system?", 50.3 percent of 
respondents in 1974, 48.9 
percent of respondents in 
1975, and 50.1 percent of 
respondents in 1976 held 
that too little money was 
being spent. Only about 
10 percent of respondents 
in those years held that 
too much money was being 
spent. 



Antidrug Programs 
for Students Favored 
by 84% of Parents 

The overwhelming majority 
of parents would require 
student attendance at pro- 
grams on the effects of 
drugs. Eighty-four percent 
of parents responded "yes" 
when the Gallup Survey of 
Public Attitudes Toward the 
Public Schools asked in 1975, 



"Should the schools in this 
community require students 
to attend a program on the 
effects of drugs and 
alcohol?" All but 13 
percent of parents with 
children in public schools 
wanted such a program. 



Spending Levels for Education- 
Public Opinion: 1973-1976 

"Are We Spending Too Much, 
Too Little, or About the Right 
Amount on Improving the 
Nation's Education System?" 



100 



PERCENT 



SOURCE NATIONAL OPINION 
RESEARCH CENTER 



90- 
80- 
70 - 
60- 
50- 
40- 
30- 
20- 
10 - 

-■ 



4.6 



9.0 



37.6 



48.8 



4.5 



8.5 



36.7 



50.3 



4.7 



11.2 



35.2 



48.9 



3.3 



9.4 



37.2 



50.1 



DON'T KNOW AND NO ANSWER 
-TOO MUCH MONEY 



— ABOUT THE RIGHT AMOUNT 



-TOO LITTLE MONEY 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



Attendance at Programs on 
Effects of Drugs— Public 
Opinion: 1975 

"Should the Schools 

in This Community PUBL ' Barents 

Require Students 

To Attend a Program 

on the Effects of Drugs 

and Alcohol?" 



PAROCHIAL SCHOOL 
PARENTS 



NO CHILDREN 
IN SCHOOL 









I 87 










H88 
1 






81 








I I 


I I 







20 



40 60 

PERCENT ANSWERING YES 



80 



100 



SOURCE GALLUP POLL 



38 CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISONS: PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION 



Americans Average 
More Years of School 
Than Other Nationals 

The average number of years 
of full-time education re- 
ceived by American men and 
women ages 12 and over has 
exceeded the average number 
of years of full-time edu- 
cation received by their 
counterparts in other de- 
veloped countries during 



the years for which the 
latest data are available. 
In 1970, men and women in 
the United States received, 
respectively, 10.7 and 10.6 
average years of full-time 
education. 

An educational advantage 
for males relative to females 
prevailed in the United 
States, as in all but two 
of the eight other 
developed countries listed. 



U.S. Outpaces Other 
Nations in Entry Rate 
into Higher Education 

The rate of entry into 
university and other higher 
education by American men 
and women was considerably 
greater than that by men 
and women in other developed 
countries, except for Sweden. 

Over 46 percent of the 
relevant age group of 



Americans and over 44 
percent of the relevant age 
group of Swedes enter into 
university or other higher 

education. 



Average Years of Full-Time 
Education per Capita, by Population 
Aged 15 and Over, by Country: 
Selected Years france 

(1968) 



B 



MALE 
FEMALE 



GERMANY 
fF.R.j 

(1970) 



ITALY' 
(1961) 



JAPAN 
(1970) 



NETHERLANDS 
(1960) 



NORWAY 
(1960) 



SWEDEN 
(1970) 



UNITED KINGDOM 
(1961) 



'Population no longer UNITEO fj^f 
attending school 
2 
Ages 14 and over 

Active population 

4 
Ages 1 5 to 59 



I 


i 




9. 1 
8.8 










9 . 3 
8. 7 












6.0 




i 


3. 2 








10.3 




9.6 






7 


. 9 
.9 


7 






f 


3. 3 
. 9 


7 








9 . 2 
8.8 










►;9.8 
9.7 








10.7 




10.6 


I ■ ■ 


1 




i 


i 



8 12 

YEARS 



16 



Entry into Higher Education as 
a Percent of Relevant Age Group, 
by Country: 1970 
(Full-Time and Part-Time) 

FRANCE 



UNIVERSITY 

OTHER HIGHER 
EDUCATION 



GERMANY 
(F.R.) 



ITALY 



22 .4 



15.8 



24. 1 



JAPAN 

_ 



23.8 



NETHERLANDS 



■ 



18.3 



NORWAY 



27 .5 



SWEDEN 



44. 7 



UNITED KINGDOM" 



" 



UNITED STATES 



20 . 3 



46. 5 



Fulltime only 



20 40 60 8( 

PERCENT 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON: ROLE OF PRIVATE EDUCATION 



39 



U.S. at Middle 
Position in 
Private Enrollment 

The role of the private 
sector in education varied 
widely in 1970 among coun- 
tries and within countries, 
by level of instruction. 
Private Dutch institutions 
of education enrolled over 
70 percent of the students 
at the preprimary, primary, 



and secondary levels of 
instruction; but less than 
one-half of the students at 
higher levels. 

Private U.S. institutions 
of education enrolled a 
considerably greater per- 
centage of the students at 
the preprimary and higher 
levels than at the primary 
and secondary levels. Over 
30 percent of American stu- 
dents at the preprimary 



level and over 26 percent 
of American students in 
higher education were in pri- 
vate institutions. Only 
about 12 percent of primary 
school students and about 
10 percent of secondary 
school students were in 
private institutions. 

The United States occupies 
a middle position with regard 
to the percentage of stu- 
dents enrolled in private 



institutions. About 14 per- 
cent of American students 
were in private institutions 
compared to 71.7 percent in 
the Netherlands and 2.4 
percent in Norway. 



Percent of Enrollment in 
Private Educational 
Institutions, by 
Level of Instruction 
Selected Countries: 
1970 



CANADA 

FRANCE 

GERMANY (F.R) 

ITALY 

JAPAN 

NORWAY 

NETHERLANDS 

UNITED KINGDOM 

UNITED STATES 



CANADA 

FRANCE 

GERMANY (F.R) 

ITALY 

JAPAN 

NORWAY 

NETHERLANDS 

UNITED KINGDOM 

UNITED STATES 



CANADA 

FRANCE 

GERMANY (F.R) 

ITALY 

JAPAN 

NORWAY 

NETHERLANDS 

UNITED KINGDOM 

UNITED STATES 



CANADA 

FRANCE 

GERMANY (F.R) 

ITALY 

JAPAN 

NORWAY 

NETHERLANDS 

UNITED KINGDOM 

UNITED STATES 



■ 15.4 
I 15.0 



PREPRIMARY 



4. 4 



I 94. 1 



76 .0 



0.0 



174.8 



6. 1 



30.4 



10 



— r~ 
20 



— T - 

30 



— r~ 

40 



50 

PERCENT 



— r~ 
60 



— I 1 1 

70 80 90 100 



3 1 . 



■ 14.1 



PRIMARY 




7.0 



72.4 



4.2 



13 1 1 .9 



10 



20 



30 



40 



1 

50 
PERCENT 



60 



— I 1 1 

70 80 90 100 



=13.2 




SECONDARY 




■122.8 






"15.4 




17.5 






126.8 


W2 3. 6 












■BH 7 . 5 




1 9 . R 




I 


I i i i 


1 1 1 1 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 
PERCENT 



60 



70 80 90 100 



■ 4.0 
0.0 








HIGHER v 










1 /e> . .■, 




10.3 


















■ 4/1 


= 4.0 














I 


I 


I 


1 1 


1 1 1 



10 



20 



30 



40 



50 

PERCENT 



60 



70 80 90 100 



SOURCE ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



40 CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISONS: ACHIEVEMENT 



U.S. Students Lag 
Behind Foreign, Except 
on Literature Scores 

U.S. 14-year-old students 
ranked first in cross- 
national tests of literature 
achievement in four countries. 

In cross-national tests 
of reading comprehension in 
five countries, 14-year-old 
U.S. students were ranked 
second in 1970. Only the 



average test score of Italian 
students exceeded that of 
U.S. students. 

U.S. 13-year-olds ranked 
fifth in 1964 in cross- 
national tests of mathematics 
achievement in six countries. 
Only students from Sweden 
scored lower. 

In cross-national tests 
of science achievement in 
seven countries, 14-year-old 
U.S. students ranked fourth. 



Test score averages of 
Japanese, German, and Swedish 
students exceeded the test 
score average of U.S. stu- 
dents. 

The cross-national com- 
parisons of student per- 
formance are based on results 
from tests developed by the 
International Association 
for the Evaluation of 



Educational Achievement, 
a nongovernmental scientifi 
association located in 
Sweden. 



Test Scores of 14-Year-Old 
Students on Achievement 
Tests, by Country: 1970 



ITALY 



SWEDEN 



UNITED 
K I NGDOM 



UNITED 
STATES 



1 r 

Literature 


44.3 








43.0 








43.5 








44.6 




1 1 



FRANCE 



"I r 



I 26.9 



JAPAN 



NETHERLANDS 



SWEDEN I 



UNITED KINGDOM I 



UNITED STATES 



Mathematics 



20 40 60 

PERCENT 



20 40 60 

PERCENT 





— —r- ■ r ■ 

Reading Comprehension 


ITALY 


53.8 












NETHER 
LANDS 


48.5 










SWEDEN 


49.2 










UNITED 
K 1 NGDOM 


48, 












UNITE0 
STATES 


52.5 






1 1 





Science 



GERMANY (F.R. ) 



ITALY 



J 



20 40 

PERCENT 



60 







JAPAN 


39.0 






NETHERLANDS 


223 






SWEDEN 


».| 








UNITED KINGDOM 


». | 






UNITED STATES 








Mathematics data are for 
13-year-olds and were C 
collected in 1964. 


) 


I i 

20 40 

PERCENT 



60 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



Section II 



community 



41 



Fiscal Federalism 

Governmental Expenditures as a 
Percent of Gross National 
Product: 1954 and 1976 42 

Components of Federal Domestic 
Expenditures as a Percent 
of Gross National Product: 
1954 and 1976 42 

State and Local Governmental 
Expenditures as a Percent 
of Gross National Product: 
1954 and 1976 42 

Public and Private Expenditures 
for Social Welfare Programs as 
a Percent of GNP 43 

Public and Private Expenditures 
for Income Maintenance Programs 
as a Percent of GNP 43 

Public and Private Expenditures 
for Health and Medical Care as 
a Percent of GNP 43 

Percent Distribution of State 
and Local Governments Revenue: 
1954 and 1976 44 

Percent Distribution of 
Federal Government Revenue: 
1954 and 1976 44 

Percent of Income Paid in 
Direct Taxes, by Families 
of Average, Above-Average 
and High Income: 1953 
and 1975 45 



Characteristics of New 
One-Family Homes 

New One-Family 
Privately-Owned 
Housing Units Completed: 
1971-1975 46 

Percent Distribution of 
New One-Family Homes, 
by Selected Physical 
Characteristic: 
Central Air-Conditioning 
Exterior Wall Material 
Financing 
Heating Fuel 46 



Map of the Month 

Population Distribution, 
Urban and Rural, in the 
United States: 1970 47-49 



U.S. District Courts 

Civil Cases Filed, Terminated 
and Pending, by Half- Years: 
1971 to 1976 50 

Selected Types of Civil Cases 
Commenced During the 
First Half of Fiscal Years 
1973-1976 50 

Criminal Cases Filed, 
Terminated, and Pending, by 
Half- Years: 1971-1976 51 

Disposition of Selective 
Service Act Violations: 
Fiscal Years, 
1966-1975 51 

Disposition of Narcotic Drug 
Law Violations: Fiscal Years, 
1966-1975 51 



Internal Revenue 
Collections 

Internal Revenue Collections, 
by Principal Sources: 
1954-1974 52 



Property Tax 
Assessments 

Assessed Value of 
Taxable Property per 
Capita, by State: 
1971 and 1975 53 



Daytime Care 
of Children 

Arrangements for the 
Daytime Care of 3- to 
13- Year-Old Children, 
by Labor Force Status 
of the Mother: October 
1974-February 1974 54 

Arrangements for the 
Daytime Care of Children 
With Mothers in the Labor 
Force, by Age: October 

1974 and February 

1975 54 

Arrangements for the 
Daytime Care of 3- to 
6- Year-Old Children With 
Mothers in the Labor 
Force, by Race: 
February 1975 55 

Arrangements for the 
Daytime Care of 7- to 
13- Year-Old Children With 
Mothers in the Labor 
Force, by Race: 
October 1974 56 



42 FISCAL FEDERALISM 



Government Spending 
Takes 34.2% of 1976 
GNP: In '54: 26.5% 

Government expenditures as 
a percent of the gross 
national product (GNP) have 
risen from 26.5 percent in 
1954 to 34.2 percent in 
1976. The State-local sec- 
tor rose from 7.4 percent 
of GNP in 1 954 to 1 1 percent 
in 1976, and the Federal 



share increased from 19.1 
percent to 23.2 percent 
during the same 22-year span. 
A striking shift within 
Federal expenditures has 
been the decline in defense 
outlays from 1 2.9 percent 
of GNP in 1954 to 7.4 percent 
of GNP in 1976. 

The rise in the propor- 
tion of Federal expenditure 
for domestic programs is 
largely attributable to 



sharp rises in Social 
Security and Federal aid 
programs. 

At the State-local level. 
State governments' share of 
expenditures has steadily 
expanded, while the local 
governments' portion (in- 
cluding school and nonschool 
has reflected less overall 
growth. 



NOTE: Percentages given 
for the Federal Government 
include intergovernmental 
outlays. Percentages for 
State and local government 
expenditures only include 
outlays from their own 
funds, and exclude utility, 
liquor store, and insurance 
trust expenditures. 

1976 percentages 
are estimates. 



Governmental Expenditures 
as Percent of Gross 
National Product: 
1954 and 1976 



Components of Federal 
Domestic Expenditures as 
Percent of Gross 
National Product: 
1954 and 1976 



State and Local Governmental 
Expenditures as Percent 
of Gross National Product: 
1954 and 1976 



4.H 


PERCENT 


























35 - 






34 . 2 


I DOMESTIC PROGRAMS 








30 - 




26 . 5 




1 NATIONAL DEFENSE 
23. 2 


25 - 




20 - 










19. 1 




- 


15 - 










6.2 
B 12.9 | 


15.8 




11.0 


- 


10 - 




7 .4 












5- 












[7.4 | 












1954 1976 1954 1976 1954 1976 




TOTAL FEDERAL STATE AND LOCAL 




PERCENT 










35 - 




- 


30 - 




- 


25 - 




- 


20 - 




- 


15 - 




- 


10 - 






5 . 8 




6 . 5 


- 


5 - 


1 . 

i 




3.5 


•» . t 








, ° 8 












■ 


-^ 


1954 1976 1954 1976 1954 1976 




SOCIAL SECURITY FEDERAL AID OTHER DOMESTIC EXPENDITURES 




PERCENT 




4U 






35 - 




- 


30 - 




- 


25 - 




- 


20 - 




- 


15 - 




- 


10 - 




c TOTAL, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 
b . 5 


5 - 




3.5 


1.2 1.6 


2.9 


- 




^ 








u - 










1954 1976 1954 1976 1954 1976 






STATE GOV 


/ERNMENTS 




SCHOOL DISTRICTS 


OTHEF 


1 THAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS 



SOURCE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS 



FISCAL FEDERALISM 

Public Social Welfare 
Spending— Twice 
Private Rate 

Total public and private 
spending for social welfare 
programs as a percentage of 
gross national product (GNP) 
has more than doubled in 
25 years. Federal Government 
welfare expenditures, 
consuming 1 1.5 percent 
of GNP in 1975 compared to 



4 percent in 1950, showed 
the sharpest increase. 
Coupled with the expansion 
from 4.9 percent to 8.4 
percent of GNP for State 
and local government welfare 
expenditures, public spend- 
ing for welfare programs 
has increased at about twice 
the rate of increase in the 
private sector. 

Federal expenditures for 
income maintenance programs, 



consisting primarily of costs 
for social insurance, public 
assistance, supplemental 
security income, and veterans 
and emergency employment 
programs, rose from 2.1 
percent to 7.1 percent of 
GNP, representing over one- 
fourth of all public and 
private welfare spending 
and about two-thirds of 
all income maintenance 
disbursements. 



43 

Between 1965 and 1975, 
the Federal share of total 
public and private outlay 
for health and medical care 
rose from 1 1.8 percent to 
28.5 percent. The enactment 
and rapid growth of the 
Medicaid and Medicare 
programs are primarily 
responsible for this sharp 
increase. 



30 



PERCENT 



I I I 

Public and Private Expenditures for Social 
Welfare Programs as a Percent 
of GNP: 1950 to 1975 




30 



25 



20 



15 



PERCENT 



i^ n^ n^ 

Public and Private Expenditures for Income 
Maintenance Programs as a Percent 
of GNP: 1950 to 1975 




1950 1955 1960 1965 



1970 



1975 



1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



SOCIAL WELFARE EXPENDITURES 



1950 



1970 



SOURCE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS 



1975 







Percent of GNP 




Public and Private Sectors, Total 


13.5 


22.3 


27.4 


Private Sector 


4.6 


7.1 


7.5 


Public Sector 


8.9 


15.2 


19.9 


Federal 


4.0 


8.1 


11.5 


State and Local 


4.9 


7.1 


8.4 


Income Maintenance, Total 


4.0 


7.5 


10.6 


Private Sector 


0.4 


1.2 


1.4 


Public Sector 


3.7 


6.3 


9.2 


Federal 


2.1 


5.0 


7.1 


State and Local 


1.5 


1.3 


2.1 


Health and Medical Care, Total 


4.5 


7.2 


8.2 


Private Sector 


3.4 


4.6 


4.8 


Public Sector 


1.2 


2.6 


3.5 


Federal 


0.5 


1.7 


2.3 


State and Local 


0.6 


0.9 


1.1 



30 



25 



20 



15 



10 



PERCENT 



1 1 1 

Public and Private Expenditures for Health 
and Medical Care as a Percent 
of GNP: 1950 to 1975 



TOTAL, PUBLIC AND 
PRIVATE SECTORS, 




950 1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



44 FISCAL FEDERALISM 



Personal Income Tax 
Provides 68% of 
All Federal Revenue 

Since 1 954, the sharp in- 
crease from 8 percent to 
28 percent in the Social 
Security share of total Fed- 
eral revenue, have resulted in 
taxes on individual income 
accounting for 68 percent of 
Federal Government revenue. 
This compares with 47 percent 



22 years ago. 

Taxes on corporate income 
have dropped from 28 percent 
to 12 percent of Federal 
Government revenue. 

Sales, gross receipts, and 
customs revenue have plum- 
meted from 14 percent to 6 
percent of total Federal 
revenue, whereas charges and 
miscellaneous revenues have 
remained relatively constant. 



Percent Distribution of Federal 
Government Revenue: 1954 and 1976 



CHARGES AND 

MISCELLANEOUS 

REVENUE 

(10%) 



SOCIAL SECURITY AND 
OTHER INSURANCE TRUST 
REVENUE (8%) 




INDIVIDUAL 
INCOME 
TAX 
(39%) 



SALES, GROSS 

RECEIPTS 

AND CUSTOMS 



CORPORATION 

INCOME 

TAX 

(28%) 



1954 TOTAL: $75.8 BILLION 



SOCIAL SECURITY AND 
OTHER INSURANCE TRUST 
REVENUE (28%) 



INDIVIDUAL 
INCOME 
TAX 
(40%) 



V 



CHARGES AND >J 


/ / \ 


MISCELLANEOUS / 




REVENUE / 




(11%) / 




ALL 


SALES, GROSS 


OTHER 


RECEIPTS 


TAXES 


AND CUSTOMS 


(2%) 


(6%) 



CORPORATION 

INCOME 

TAX 

(12%) 



1976 TOTAL: $326 BILLION 



Federal Aid Offsets 
Property Tax Share Loss 
to States, Localities 

The decline in property taxes 
from 28 percent of State and 
local government revenue in 
1954 to 18 percent in 1976, 
has been more than offset 
by the expansion of Federal 
aid from 8 percent to 20 
percent of total State and 
local government revenue. 



Also, 1 1 percent of 
State and local government 
revenue came from the income 
tax in 1976, compared to only 
5 percent in 1954. All 
other revenue (primarily 
utility, liquor store, and 
insurance trust revenue) has 
declined 5 percentage points 
as a source of State and 
local revenue. 



Percent Distribution of State and Local 
Governments Revenue: 1954 and 1976 




PROPERTY TAX 
(28%) 



CHARGES AND 
MISCELLANEOUS 
GENERAL REVENUE 
(11%) 



ALL OTHER 

TAXES 

(8%) 



INCOME TAX 
(5%) 



SALES & GROSS 
RECEIPTS TAX 
(21%) 

1954 TOTAL: S35.4 BILLION 




PROPERTY TAX 
(18%) 



INCOME TAX 
(11%) 



CHARGES AND 
MISCELLANEOUS 
GENERAL REVENUE 
(15%) 



SALES & GROSS 
RECEIPTS TAX 
(19%) 



1976 TOTAL: $292 BILLION 



SOURCE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS 



. 



FISCAL FEDERALISM 

Direct Tax Burden 

of Average U.S. Family 

Up 92.4% in 22 Years 

The direct tax burden of the 
"average" family increased 
92.4 percent between 1953 
and 1975. Whereas 11.8 
percent of an average fami- 
ly's annual income of $5,000 
in 1953 was paid in taxes, 
nearly 23 percent of an 
average family's income of 



$14,000 in 1975 was paid in 
taxes. The largest increase 
was recorded by the Social 
Security tax, which took 5.9 
percent of an average fami- 
ly's income in 1975 compared 
to 1.1 percent in 1953. 
State and local taxes took 
7.2 percent in 1975, up 4.1 
percentage points over 1953. 
The Federal personal income 
tax recorded the smallest 
gain, rising from 7.6 to 



9.6 percent of an average 
family's income in 22 years. 
The tax burdens of families 
with above average and high 
incomes increased at about 
half the rate of the average 
family's taxes during the 
same 22-year span. 

NOTE: Average family income 
amounts assume all income 
derived from wages and 
salaries are earned by one 



45 

spouse. Above-averaoe family 
income data assume that 
earnings include $375 in 
interest and net long-term 
capital gain in 1953, and 
$1,145 in 1975. For high- 
income families, the amounts 
assumed are $1,995 in 1953 
and $7,365 in 1975. See 
Notes and Definitions for 
assumptions on deductions 
and residential property 
tax estimates. 



PERCENT 



Percent of Income Paid in Direct Taxes, 
by Families of Average, Above-Average, 
and High Income: 1953 and 1975 



STATE AND LOCAL TAXES 
SOCIAL SECURITY TAX 
FEDERALTAX 



29.5 



24.6 



22. 7 




16.5 




20.2 




0.5 



14.7 



0.3 



21.1 



1953 1975 
($5,000) ($14,000) 

AVERAGE FAMILY 



1953 1975 
($10,000) ($28,000) 

ABOVE AVERAGE 
FAMILY 



1953 1975 

($20,000) ($56,000) 

HIGH INCOME 
FAMILY 



SOURCE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS 



CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW ONE-FAMILY HOMES 46 



New Homeowners Favor 
Air Conditioning, Wood 
Exteriors, Electric Heat 

In the 5-year period begin- 
ning in 1971 , the number of 
new one-family homes dropped 
to 866,000 in 1975 after 
hitting a high of nearly 
1.2 million in 1973. 

Although the majority of 
new one-family homes are 
without installed central 



air-conditioning, the pro- 
portion of homes with 
installed air-conditioning 
has been increasing. In 
1971, 36 percent were in- 
stalled with central air- 
conditioning and by 1975, 
this proportion rose to 46 
percent. 

There is a continuing 
preference to use wood or 
a wood product as the 
principal type of exterior 



wall material— 36 percent 
of new one-family homes in 
|975, compared with 28 
percent in 1971 . 

There was a growing trend 
for new one-family homes to 
be financed by conventional 
financing, while FHA-insured 
financing continued to lose 
popularity. In 1971,49 
percent were conventionally 
financed versus 65 percent 
in 1975. The proportion of 



homes that were FHA-insured 
financed dropped from 25 to 
9 percent during the same 
period. 

Almost half of all new 
one-family homes were heated 
with electricity in 1975, 
compared with less than one- 
third in 1971. Those heated 
with gas declined from 60 
percent in 1971 to 40 percent 
in 1975. 



1 500 - 


THOUSANDS 
























New One-Family Privately Owned 
Housing Units Completed: 
1971-1975 


1,143 




1,174 








1,014 












1,000 J 










9 SI 












ODD 




500- 
0- 









1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



Percent Distribution of New One-Family Homes, 
by Selected Physical Characteristic: 





PERCENT 








































CENTRAL AIR- 
























CONDITIONING 
























INSTALLED 


- 






















NOT INSTALLED 



100 



PERCENT 



50 



FINANCING 
^FHA-INSURED 
V VA GUARANTEED 






CONVENTIONAL 



CASH 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



100 



PERCENT 



50 - 



INI 



EXTERIOR 
WALL MATERIAL 

BRICK 



WOOD OR 
WOOD PRODUCTS 

STUCCO 
ALUMINUM 
SIDING 
OTHER 



100 



PERCENT 



50 - 



ykWJiy 



HEATING 
FUEL 



GAS 



ELECTRICITV 



-OIL 

.OTHER OR NONE 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



map of 
the month 



49 



Where do the 
people live? 



The centerfold map this month 
is one way of graphically 
answering the question. The 
map depicts the distribution 
of the urban and rural popu- 
lation in 1970. Each dot 
represents 500 persons. Other 
symbols such as small squares 
or concentric circles are 
used to show places of larger 
population. In some areas 
the symbols coalesce into 
bright white zones depicting 
large concentrations of 
population. 

The map clearly locates 
the major metropolitan areas 
of the United States. Of 
particular note is the way 
that the principal corridors 
connecting the super cities 
or megalopolises are readily 
seen. Upon examination, the 
location of the Boston- 
Washington corridor can be 
seen extending southward 
from Boston along the Atlantic 
Coast through Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, New York City, 
northern New Jersey, Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington, Baltimore, 
Washington, and northern 
Virginia. Other corridors 
clearly located on the map 
include the corridor start- 
ing in northwestern New York 
State (Buffalo), extending 
westward along Lake Erie 
through Cleveland and 
northward through Detroit; 
the northern Indiana, Chicago, 
Milwaukee corridor; the 



corridor extending down the 
south Atlantic coast in 
Florida from north of Daytona 
Beach through Miami to the 
Florida Keys; and several 
corridors on the west coast 
such as the Seattle/Portland 
corridor, San Francisco/ 
Oakland and Monterey corridor, 
and the Los Angeles/San Diego 
corridor. 

The effects of landforms 
on population distribution 
are quite apparent. The 
central valley of California 
and the Puget-Willamett low- 
land in Oregon and Washington 
stand out easily. In the 
East, the linear pattern of 
the population in Appalachian 
Highlands clearly marks the 
valleys in the ridge and 
valley section. Similar 
responses of population dis- 
tribution to landforms appear 
as patterns along rivers and 
at the base of mountains. 

Population residence also 
responds to transportation 
needs. In addition to the 
waterways, lines of popula- 
tion appear along major rail 
or highway routes. In the 
Midwest and Plains States, 
one can see how people are 
distributed along these 
routes, with small towns or 
cities giving the appearance 
of a string of pearls. In 
Florida, along the east coast 
and cutting across at Orlando, 
the people concentrate in 



apparent response to the 
transportation network. 

The map was prepared 
manually using conventional 
cartographic techniques. 
Maps of small geographic units 
such as minor civil divisions 
and census county divisions 
were examined to determine 
the location of houses or 
other cultural features. 
Using these as indicators of 
where the people live, the 
correct number of dots were 
computed from 1970 census 
statistics and were placed in 
each geographic unit. The 
resulting maps were used as 
guides for the cartographers 
to render the final map, 
which was photographically 
reduced and then printed in 
the negative form you see 
here. This presents the 
sensation of looking at the 
United States on a dark, 
cloudfree night from a view- 
point in space, where every 
home has a light shining 
skyward. For this reason, 
the map has been referred to 
as a "nighttime" map of the 
population distribution of 
the Nation. 

A larger scale version of 
the map was entered in the 
annual map design competition 
of the American Congress of 
Surveying and Mapping in 1974. 
It was awarded a blue ribbon 
for overall cartographic pre- 
sentation of data. 



Population Distribution, 
Urban and Rural, in 
the United States: 
1970 



r S 




URBAN POPULATION 




£> h^":* 



RURAL POPULATION 



SOUMCU IHIIII AIM.I 1 1 II i:lN!«l 



50 DISTRICT COURTS 



Civil Case Load 
Climbs at an 
Increasing Rate 

The total civil workload 
during the first half of 
FY 1976 was 184,828 cases, 
which includes 119,767 
cases pending as of June 1975 
(the end of FT 1975) and 
65,061 new cases filed. 
Since there were only 51,053 
cases terminated during this 



period, the number of civil 
cases pending at the end of 
the first half of FY 1976 
rose to 133,775 cases, an 
increase of 17.9 percent 
over the pending figure of 
11 3,432 for the first half 
of FY 1975. Between 1971 
and 1974, the workload had 
increased only 13.3 percent. 



Social Security 
Court Actions 
Double 

The number of social 
security and real property 
actions have risen sharply 
during the past year. 
The increase in social 
security cases filed, up 
from 2,355 to 4,757, or 
102 percent, was largely 
due to the sharp rise in 



the number of "black lung" 
cases filed by coal miners 
or their dependents. The 
46-percent 12-month increase 
in real property actions was 
due to an increase in the 
number of land condemnation 
filings. State and Federal 
prisoner petitions recorded 
annual increases of 3.2 and 3.3 
percent, respectively. 



THOUSANDS OF CASES 



THOUSANDS OF CASES 



Civil Cases Filed, Terminated, and Pending, 
by Half-Years 1971-1976 



CASES PENDING- 



CASES FILED, 




_ 



/ 



1971 1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



FISCAL YEARS 
SOURCE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS 



Selected Types of Civil Cases Commenced During 
the First Half of Fiscal Years 1973-1976 




FISCAL YEARS 



U.S. DISTRICT COURTS 
STATUS OF CIVIL CASES 



1971 1975 1976 

(first half of fiscal year) 







Number of Cases 




Cases Pending 
Cases Filed 
Cases Terminated 


100,090 
46,654 
39.771 


113,432 
55,952 
49,750 


133,775 
65,061 
51,053 


CIVIL CASES COMMENCED, 
BY SELECTED TYPES 


1973 


1975 1976 
(first half of fiscal year) 






Number of Cases 




State Prisoner Petitions 
Federal Prisoner Petitions 
Real Property Actions 
Social Security Laws 


5,985 
2,107 
1,998 
1,201 


7,158 
2,504 
3,113 
2,355 


7,387 
2,586 
4,537 
4,757 



U.S. DISTRICT COURTS 

Pending U.S. District 
Court Cases Drop 
to 5- Year Low 

Criminal case filings in 
the U.S. district courts 
decreased less than 1 per- 
cent, from 20,354 in the 
first 6 months of fiscal 
1975 to 20,222 in 1976. 
Although filings decreased, 
the number of cases termi- 
nated rose by 2.5 percent 



in the first half of fiscal 
1976 compared to the same 
period a year ago. The 
increased 1976 termination 
rate resulted in 3.9 per- 
cent fewer cases than a 
year ago pending on the 
criminal dockets. The 
1976 half-year pending 
number of 21 ,578 is the 
lowest since the first 
half of fiscal year 1970. 



Selective Service 
Act and Drug 
Violations Decline 

The number of persons 
charged with violations of 
the Selective Service Act 
has been steadily decreasing 
since the end of the Vietnam 
war. In fiscal year 1975, 
there were 1 ,376 selective 
service violators, 229 of 
which were convicted. This 



51 

is down sharply from the 
4,906 defendants and 1 ,642 
convictions in the peak 
year of 1972. 

Following four consecu- 
tive yearly increases, the 
number of federal narcotics 
defendants and convictions 
declined slightly in 1975. 
The percentage of defendants 
convicted since the prior 
fiscal year remained stable 
at about 75 percent. 



THOUSANDS OF CASES 



Criminal Cases Filed, Terminated, and Pending: 
-Fiscal Half-Years, 1965-1976 




12 
1 1 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 




THOUSANDS OF CASES 



1965 



1969 



1973 



1977 



THOUSANDS OF CASES 



Disposition of Selective Service Act Violations: 
Fiscal Years, 1966-1975 




Disposition of Narcotic Drug Law Violations: 
Fiscal Years, 1966-1975 




966 t968 1970 1972 1974 1976 



CRIMINAL CASES 



1965 



1975 



1976* 



Cases Filed 
Cases Pending 
Cases Terminated 

DISPOSITION OF SELECTIVE 
SERVICE VIOLATIONS 
Total Defendants 
Convicted 
Not Convicted 

DISPOSITION OF NARCOTIC 
DRUG LAW VIOLATIONS 
Total Dedendants 
Convicted 
Not Convicted 





Thousands 




5,724 
1,106 
4,196 


20,354 
22,452 
20,546 


20,222 
21,578 
21,055 


1966 


1974 


1975** 


516 
371 
145 


2.094 

799 

1,295 


1,376 
229 

1,147 


1966 


1974 


1975** 


2,223 

1,874 
349 


10,989 
8,245 
2,744 


10,901 
8,151 
2,750 



*First half of fiscal years (July to December). 
* * Full fiscal year data. 



I966 



1968 



1970 



1972 



1974- 



SOURCE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS 



52 INTERNAL REVENUE COLLECTIONS 



Tax Collections Up 
Between '74 and '75; 
Job Levies Jump Most 

Total U.S. Internal Revenue 
collections rose from 
S268.95 billion in 1974 to 
S293.82 billion in 1975, 
an increase of 9.2 percent. 
Employment taxes, increasing 
13 percent to $70.14 billion, 
in 1975, had the largest 
rate increase among major 



sources of Internal Revenue 
collections. From 1955 to 
1975, employment taxes, 
consisting of Social Security, 
unemployment insurance, 
and other payroll taxes and 
payments by the elderly for 
medicare, went from 9.4 
percent of total Internal 
Revenue collections to 23.9 
percent of total collections. 
Individual income taxes, 
increasing from $142.90 



billion in 1974 to $156.40 
billion in 1975, rose from 
47.7 percent to 53.2 per- 
cent of total collections 
since 1955. Corporation 
and profits taxes, although 
increasing 250.5 percent 
since 1955, shrunk from 
27.6 percent to 15.6 percent 
of total revenue collections. 
Other taxes, mainly consist- 
ing of estate, gift, and 
excise taxes (such as those 



on alcohol and tobacco) 
dropped from 15.3 percent 
of total collections in 1955 
to 7.3 percent of the 1975 
total. 



300 



275 



250 



225 



200 



175 



150 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




125 



100 



1955 1957 1959 

SOURCE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE 



PROPERTY TAX ASSESSMENTS 



53 



Per Capita Property 
Tax Assessments Jump 
47.1% From '71 to '75 

Despite a 4.4-percent in- 
crease in population between 
1971 and 1975, taxable 
assessed property value per 
capita in the U.S. rose 
47.1 percent -from $3,400 
per capita in 1971 to 
$5,000 per capita in 1975. 



Several factors account 
for the sharp variations 
in per capita taxable 
assessed values between 
States. For example, re- 
assessment of all taxable 
property at specified value 
levels closer to current 
market levels has occurred 
in some States. Adjustment 
of assessment to full 
market value in Iowa and 
Washington partially account 



for the sharp per capita 
4-year increases in these 
States. 

Other States at the same 
time have established 
different value levels for 
specified types of property 
(e.g., five classes of 
property at 15 percent to 
60 percent of full cash 
value in Arizona and three 
classes of realty at 25 



percent to 55 percent of 
full value in Tennessee). 

In contrast to the overall 
47.1 -percent increase in 
per capita assessed property 
values in 4 years, actual 
per capita property tax 
collections rose only 30.3 
percent, reflecting a down- 
ward trend in tax rates and 
the increasing use of prop- 
erty tax exemptions. 



Assessed Value of Taxable Property per Capita, by State: 1971 and 1975 




UNITED STATES 

ALABAMA 

ALASKA 

AR I ZONA 

ARKANSAS 

CALIFORNIA 

COLORADO 

CONNECT I CUT 

DELAWARE 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

FLOR I DA 

GE0RG I A 

HAWA I I 

IDAHO 

ILLINOIS 

I ND I ANA 

IOWA 

KANSAS 

KENTUCKY 

LOU I S I ANA 

MAINE 

MARYLAND 

MASSACHUSETTS 

M I CH I GAN 

MINNESOTA 

MISSISSIPPI 

M I SSOUR I 

MONTANA 

NEBRASKA 

NEVADA 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

NEW JERSEY 

NEW MEXICO 

NEW YORK 

NORTH CAROLINA 

NORTH DAKOTA 

OHIO 

OKLAHOMA 

OREGON 

PENNSYLVAN I A 

RHODE ISLAND 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

TENNESSEE 

TEXAS 

UTAH 

VERMONT 

V I RG I N I A 

WASH I NGTON 

WEST VIRGINIA 

WISCONSIN 

WYOMING 



5.0 



JH 



1975 
■ 17.5 



r^7 

.6 

■ 3.5 
■ 3.4 



8.0 



5 .6 



lb 



0. 7 
11.2 



4.9 



| 12.2 



1 .9 



4.8 



JJTs: 



nz 



| 15.3 




9.0 



TT7T 



] 2.8 



1 .9 



J 4.0 



5.8 



8.4 



| 10.0 



2 .4 



■ 4.1 



9.5 



1 . 1 



4.4 




THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



54 DAYTIME CARE OF CHILDREN 



Most Children Cared for in 
Home While Mothers Work 



The type of arrangement 
made for the daytime care of 
children 3 to 13 years old 
varies according to the 
mother's labor force status 
and the school enrollment 
status of the child. 
Virtually all children of 
mothers not in the labor 



force are cared for pri- 
marily by a parent. More 
than two-fifths of all 
children 3 to 13 years old 
have mothers in the labor 
force, and two out three 
of these children are re- 
ported as under the care of 
a parent when they are not 
in school. Only one in 
seven is cared for outside 
the home. 

Daytime care arrangements 



for children with mothers 
in the labor force vary by the 
age of the child. About a 
fifth of all 3- to 6-year-old 
children with mothers in the 
labor force are taken outside 
the home to be cared for by 
persons unrelated to them. 
Among children 7 to 1 3 years 
old with mothers in the labor 
force, care outside the home 
is less frequent. A large 
proportion of school-age 



children care for themselves, 
or stay at home with relatives 
(probably brothers or sisters) 
while their mothers work. 



NOTE: Data for half of the 
universe were collected 
October 1974; the other 
half, February 1975. 



Arrangements for the Daytime Care of 3- to 13-Year-Old Children, by Labor Force 
Status of the Mother: October 1974 and February 1975 



OUTSIDE HOME 
6.4 0.7 



CARED FOR OUTSIDE HOME 
CARED FOR IN HOME BY SOMEONE 
OTHER THAN PARENT 

CARED FOR IN HOME 
BY PARENT 

BY SOMEONE 

OTHER THAN PARENT 

9.2 



BY SOMEONE 

OTHER THAN PARENT 

1.7 



Mother in 
Labor Force 




BY PARENT 
53.7 



Mother Not in 
Labor Force 



Arrangements for Daytime Care of Children With Mothers in the Labor Force, by Age: October 1974 and February 1975 



BY NONRELATIVE' 
18.7 
[OUTSIDE HOME 

INSIDE HOME 
OTHER 



OTHER 2.0 



BY NONRELATIVE 3.9 
BY RELATIVE 



BY NONRELATIVE' 
2.6 



BY RELATIVE 
9.5 



BY RELATIVE V ^S/S / 


/ CHILDCARED 
/ FOR SELF 
/ 13.1 


BY NONRELATIVE* \^ / 




2.8 y 

BY ^^^^^^^^^^ 
72 

Children 3 6 Years Old 
(February 1975 Survey) 


BY PARENT 
58.0 




BY PARENT 
66.1 



Children 7 13 Years Old 
(October 1974 Survey) 



•INCLUDING DAYCARE CENTERS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 






DAYTIME CARE OF CHILDREN 



55 



More Black Children 
With Relatives 
While Mothers Work 

Black children 3 to 6 years 
old are more likely to have 
mothers in the labor force 
than are their white counter- 
parts, and arrangements 
made by mothers of black 
children and mothers of 
white children for the care 
of their children differ 



considerably. About 82 
percent of black preschool 
children whose mothers are 
in the labor force are cared 
for by a parent or other 
relative compared with 74 
percent of white children. 
White mothers in the labor 
force are more likely to 
place their young children 
in the care of someone 
unrelated to them than 
are black mothers. 



Arrangements for the Daytime Care 
of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children 
With Mothers in the Labor Force, 
by Race: February 1975 



BY 

NONRELATIVE 
20.1 



CARED FOR IN 
OWN HOME 
CARED FOR 
OUTSIDE HOME 

OTHER 



White Children 



BY 

RELATIVE 

9.7 



BY 

NONRELATIVE 
3.5 

BY 

RELATIVE 

5.7 



OTHER 2.0 




BY PARENT 
59.0 



BY 

NONRELATIVE 
13.5 



Black Children 



BY 

RELATIVE 

17.2 



BY 

NONRELATIVE 

0.4 




BY PARENT 
54.0 



"Including Daycare Center. 



BY 

RELATIVE 

11.1 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



56 DAYTIME CARE OF CHILDREN 



Only 7% of After-School 
Childcare Takes 
Place Outside Home 

Among school-age children 
7 to 13 years old with 
mothers in the labor force, 
very few children, black 
or white, are cared for 
outside of their own home 
during nonschool hours- 
only about 7 percent of 
each group. A higher 



proportion of white than 
black children (68 percent 
compared to 59 percent) are 
cared for primarily by a 
parent in their own home; 
and more black children 
(16 percent) than white 
children (8 percent) are 
cared for in their own 
home by other relatives 
(e.g., sibling, aunt, uncle, 
or grandparent). 



Arrangements for the Daytime Care 
of 7- to 13- Year-Old Children 
With Mothers in the Labor Force, 
by Race: October 1974 



BY NONRELATIVE 
4.3 



OTHER 1.9 



CARED FOR IN 
OWN HOME 

CARED FOR 
OUTSIDE HOME 



BY RELATIVE 
2.8 
BY NONRELATIVE 
2.6 

BY RELATIVE 
8.3 



OTHER 



White Children 



CHILD CARED 

FOR SELF 

12.5 




BY PARENT 
67.6 



BY NONRELATIVE 
2.5 
BY RELATIVE 
4.3 



OTHER 2.1 



BY NONRELATIVE 
2.5 



BY RELATIVE 
15.5 



Black Children 



CHILD CARED 

FOR SELF 

13.7 




BY PARENT 
'59.4 



'Including Daycare Center 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 






Section III 



economy 



57 



World Industrial 
Production: 
Developed Nations 

World Industrial 
Production 58 

Industrial Production 

Industrial Production 
Index, Total 59 

By Major Industry 
Groupings 59 

By Major Market 
Groupings 59 

Selected Market Groupings- 
Final Products 59 

Selected Market Groupings- 
Intermediate Products 59 

Exports & Imports 

Merchandise Trade 
Balance 60 

Exports 60 

Imports 60 

Manufacturing & Trade 
Sales & Inventories 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Sales 61 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Inventories 61 

Inventory/Sales Ratio 61 

Advance Retail Sales- 
August 

Retail Sales— Advance 
Estimates for August 62 

Selected Durable Goods 62 

Selected Nondurable 
Goods 62 



Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' 
Durable Goods 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
Goods— August 63 

New Orders— Capital Goods 
Industries 63 

New Orders— Selected 
Industries 63 

Shipments— Selected 
Industries 63 

Consumer Price Index 

Consumer Price Index _ 
All Items 64 

Commodity and Service 
Groups 64 

Expenditure Class— Food 64 

Expenditure Class— Housing 65 

Expenditure Class- 
Apparel and Upkeep 65 

Expenditure Class- 
Transportation 65 

Expenditure Class— Health 
and Recreation 65 



Wholesale Price Index 

Wholesale Price Index, All 
Commodities Total 66 

Farm Products 66 

Processed Foods and 
Feeds 66 

Industrial Commodities 66 



Agricultural Prices 

Agricultural Prices 67 

Ratio of Prices Received 
to Prices Paid 67 

Selected Prices 
Received 67 

Selected Prices Paid 67 

Housing Permits, 

by State 

New Public and Private 
Housing Units Authorized 
in 14,000 Permit-Issuing 
Places, by State: 1975 68 

Percent Change in New 
Public and Private Housing 
Units Authorized in 
Permit-Issuing Places, 
by State: 1974 to 1975 69 

Housing Starts 
& Permits 

New Private Housing Units 
Started 70 

Housing Starts, by 
Region 70 

New Private Housing Units 
Authorized 70 

Housing Authorizations, by 
Region 70 

Value of New 
Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Work Done 71 

Private Residential 
Construction 71 

Private Nonresidential 
Construction 71 



Federal Construction 

Federal Contract Awards: 
1975 and 1974 72 

Expenditures for New 
Plant & Equipment 

Expenditures for New 
Plant & Equipment 73 

Components of Manufacturing 
Industries 73 

Components of Nonmanu- 
facturing Industries 73 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 74 

Type of Consumer 
Installment Credit 74 

Holders of Consumer 
Installment Credit 74 



Business Incorporations 
& Failures 

New Business 
Incorporations 75 

Failure Annual Rate 75 

Industrial and Commercial 
Failures 75 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 

Composite Index of Leading 
Indicators 76 

Building Permits 76 

New Orders— Manufacturers 
of Consumer Products 
and Materials 76 



58 WORLD INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION: DEVELOPED NATIONS 



Comparison of industrial 
production in six nations 
indicates that although 
recovery is continuing dur- 
ing 1976, output remains 
below peaks recorded in 
1973 and 1974. 

JAPAN: Following an 
accelerated rate of recovery 
during the November-to- 
April 1976 period, produc- 
tion slipped 2.1 percent 
in May to 189. Output has 



climbed 17 percent since 
the March 1975 low, but 
remains almost 9 percent 
below the November 1973 high. 

WEST GERMANY: The May 
index, unchanged from April 
at 1 50, represents a gain of 
almost 13 percent since the 
July 1975 low and is only 
3.8 percent below the 
December 1973 peak. 

FRANCE: Production is 
nearly 13 percent above the 



May 1975 low and about 6 
percent below the July- 
August 1974 high. 

CANADA: Since the upturn 
began last Novembei, output 
has advanced a total of 7.2 
percent. At 148, the May 
index is only 1.3 percent 
below the March 1974 high. 

UNITED STATES: The 
May index of 129.6 was only 
1 .7 percent below the June 
1974 high and more recent 



data indicate further 
increases. 

UNITED KINGDOM: Main- 
taining a moderate pace of 
recovery, output rose 0.9 
percent to 116. Although 
this is a total increase of 
4.5 percent since the 
December low, production 
remains 1 1.2 percent below 
the October 1973 peak. 



210 



200 



190 



180 



170 



160 



INDEX, 1967=100 




150 



1 40 



130 



120 



1 10 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 


INDEX 




INTERNATIONAL 


COMPARI- 


SONS (Index, 1967 


= 100) 


JAPAN 




May 1975 


165.0 


April 1976 


193.0 


May 1976 


189.0 


WEST GERMANY 




May 1975 


142.0 


April 1976 


150.0 


May 1976 


150.0 


FRANCE 




May 1975 


134.0 


April 1976 


151.0 


May 1976 


151.0 


CANADA 




May 1975 


138.0 


April 1976 


146.0 


May 1976 


148.0 


UNITED STATES 




May 1975 


113.7 


April 1976 


128.4 


May 1976 


129.6 


UNITED KINGDOM 




May 1975 


111.0 


April 1976 


115.0 


May 1976 


116.0 



1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



1974 



1975 



1976 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

August's 0.5% Rise 
Continues Upward Trend 
in Industrial Output 

Following an upward-revised 
0.5-percent gain in July, 
industrial production rose 
a further 0.5 percent in 
August to 131.4. Advances 
in both July and August 
were concentrated in dur- 
able materials, business 
equipment, and construction 

INDEX, 1967=100 



supplies. Since the turn- 
around began in April 1975, 
output has increased a total 
of 17.6 percent. 

Manufacturing production 
rose an estimated 0.4 per- 
cent in August following a 
0.7-percent gain in July. 
Mining output rose 1 .3 per- 
cent to 1 13.2, almost re- 
covering from a 1.5-percent 
drop in July. The utilities 



Industrie 


I Productio 


n Index, To 


tal 












K -- / ~\ 








j 










^.y 

























1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 
INDEX, 1967=100 




00 ' " ■ 

1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Index, 1967=100 




TOTAL 


121.0 


130.7 


131.4 


INDUSTRY GROUPINGS 








Manufacturing 


119.7 


131.0 


131.5 


Mining 


111.6 


111.7 


113.2 


Utilities 


148.3 


151.3 


151.6 


MAJOR MARKET GROUPINGS 








Materials 


119.0 


132.0 


133.2 


Final Products 


120.8 


127.7 


127.9 


Consumer Goods 


127.5 


137.2 


137.2 


Equipment 


111.4 


114.6 


115.3 


Business Equipment 


129.9 


136.6 


137.7 


Intermediate Products 


127.9 


136.6 


137.7 


Construction Supplies 


121.3 


132.7 


134.1 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



59 



index, which declined in 
June and July, edged up 
0.2 percent. 

The materials index rose 
0.9 percent in August com- 
pared to 0.8 percent in 
July. A continued strong 
advance in output of durable 
materials, despite a recent 
weakening in steel produc- 
tion, pushed the materials 
index to 133.2, almost 23 
percent above the March 
1975 low. 

INDEX, 1967=100 



Final products rose 0.2 
percent in August, about the 
same as in June and July. 
Following a revised 0.7-per- 
cent gain in July, business 
equipment rose a further 0.6 
percent; consumer goods, 
however, was unchanged at 
137.2. The rise in inter- 
mediate products was accel- 
erated in August, boosted 
by a 1.1-percent gain in 
construction supplies. 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



1 QQ I i i i i t i I ■ ■ ■ I i i i i I i i i i , I ■ i t i i i i i i | i I i i i i ■ 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

INDEX, 1967=100 



Selected Market Groupings- 
Final Products 



BUSINESS FQUIPMENT 



St 



CONSUMER GOODS, TOTAL 



I 



/P* 



■■ ■''■■■'■ ' 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

INDEX, 1967=100 



r~ ~ i 

Selected Market Groupings- 
Intermediate Products 




•*" 






CONSTRUCTION SUPPLIES 



Li i-L I, 1 I 1 I I 1 1 






1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 



60 EXPORTS & IMPORTS 



Records Set in Imports 
and Exports in July, 
but Deficit Persists 

In July, total imports ex- 
ceeded exports by $827.1 
million, the largest trade 
deficit since August 1974. 
With 6 of the 7 months in 
1976 showing deficits, the 
cumulative total for 1976 
has reached $1.88 billion. 



Exports expanded 3.1 per- 
cent to an adjusted $10.02 
billion, a new record high. 
Nonagricultural exports rose 
$91 million to $7.76 billion, 
led by increased exports of 
machinery. Agricultural ex- 
ports increased $123 million, 
with food exports making the 
largest contribution to the 
net gain. 

Total imports climbed 
8.1 percent to an adjusted 



$10.85 billion, also a record. 
Petroleum imports reached 
record levels with an in- 
crease of $527.3 million to 
$3.13 billion. Other imports 
recorded a $228 million 
increase to $7.72 billion. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



-2 






JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


EXPORTS & IMPORTS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




MERCHANDISE TRADE BALANCE 


1.039 


-0.377 


■0.827 


EXPORTS, TOTAL* 


8.87 


9.72 


10.02 


Domestic Nonagricultural Commodities 


7.08 


7.67 


7.76 


Domestic Agricultural Commodities 


1.75 


1.90 


2.03 


IMPORTS, TOTAL* 


7.83 


10.04 


10.85 


Imports, Excluding Petroleum 


5.79 


7.49 


7.72 


Petroleum Imports 


2.04 


2.61 


3.13 



'Details may not add to total due to seasonal adjustment of 
individual series. 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1 974 



1975 



1976 



12 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



10 



Exports 




























TOTAL 


EXPORTS 

/ 
























J 






















J\ 

DOMES 
NONAG 


TIC 

RICULTUR/ 

IDITIES 


KL 






J 


COMMC 




f ^^^^fm 


v^" 




























DOMESTIC 
AGRICI II TIIRAL 




mini igj- 




1 1 AJ.l_l 


COMMODITIES 





12 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



10 



Imports 


























TOT 


AL IMPORTS 

\ 1 
















PEl 


"ROLEUM IN 


IPORTSv 


/ 












X 






















\. IMPORTS, 
^EXCLUDING 










PETF 


tULCUIVI 











































1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES & INVENTORIES 



July Sales Dip 0.2% 
Inventories Increase 
for Seventh Month 

Total manufacturing and trade 
sales declined $351 million 
in July to $188.7 billion. 
A $21 million increase in 
manufacturers' sales was 
offset by decreases in retail 
and wholesale sales of $1 86 
million each. 



Total sales declined 0.2 
percent from June to July. 
During the same period in 
1975, sales increased 2.1 
percent. Combined sales for 
July 1976 still posted an 
1 1.5-percent increase over 
July of a year ago. 

Continuing the upward 
trend of the past 6 months, 
total manufacturing and trade 
inventories increased $1.5 
billion to $277.8 billion 



in July. This represents 
increases of 0.6 percent 
from June and 5.5 percent 
from July 1975. A $867 
million increase in manufac- 
turers' inventories account- 
ed for 56 percent of the 
total increase. Retail 
inventories increased $616 
million, and wholesale inven- 
tories edged up $60 million. 

Combined inventories 
equaled 1.47 months of 



61 

sales at the July rate. 
This represents a 0.7-per- 
cent increase from June. 
The manufacturing stock-to- 
sales ratio edged up to 
1 .61 , reflecting more in- 
ventory accumulation than 
sales. Increased inventory, 
coupled with decreased sales, 
caused the retail and whole- 
sale ratios to rise to 1.44 
and 1.20, respectively. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




300 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1971 1972 1973 


1974 


1975 1 


976 


MANUFACTURING & TRADE 


JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


SALES & INVENTORIES 


1975 


1976 


1976 


SALES 




Billions of Dollars 




Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


169.3 


189.0 


188.7 


Manufacturing 


83.0 


94.2 


94.3 


Retail Trade 


49.7 


54.0 


53.8 


Wholesale Trade 


36.6 


40.8 


40.6 


INVENTORIES 








Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


263.3 


276.2 


277.8 


Manufacturing 


147.2 


150.9 


151.8 


Retail Trade 


71.5 


76.7 


77.3 


Wholesale Trade 


44.7 


48.6 


48.7 


INVENTORY-TO-SALES RATIOS 




Ratio 




Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


1.56 


1.46 


1.47 


Manufacturing 


1.77 


1.60 


1.61 


Retail Trade 


1.44 


1.42 


1.44 


Wholesale Trade 


1.22 


1.19 


1.20 



250 



200 




150 



100 



Manufacturing and Trade Inventories 



MANUFACTURING 



y 




Inventory/Sales Ratio 




197 1 



972 1973 1974 1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



62 ADVANCE RETAIL SALES-AUGUST 



August Retail Sales 
Rebound 2.3% After 
0.3% July Decrease 

Rebounding from the decline 
posted in July, total retail 
sales advanced $1.2 billion 
(2.3 percent) in August to 
$55 billion. The July 
decrease, originally esti- 
mated at 1.2 percent, was 
revised to 0.3 percent on 
the basis of more complete 



data. Almost all of the 
groups reporting data for 
August posted gains over 
the month, with about 45 
percent of the total increase 
centered in sales of auto- 
motive dealers. Sales, 
excluding automotive dealers, 
which were virtually un- 
changed in July, rose $670 
million (1 .5 percent) in 
August to $44.1 billion. 



Recovering from the $124 
million decrease posted in 
July, sales of durable goods 
rose $668 million (3.8 per- 
cent) to $18.3 billion. 
Automotive sales rose $558 
million, the largest dollar 
increase since February, to 
a new high of $10.9 billion. 
Sales of the furniture and 
appliance group were valued 
at $2.5 billion, an increase 



of $70 million (2.9 percent) 
from July. 

Sales of nondurable goods 
rose $560 million (1.6 
percent) to $36.7 billion. 
The increase in general 
merchandise sales— $317 
million (3.3 percent) — 
accounted for about half of 
the August gain. Sales of 
food stores rose $1 11 
million (0.9 percent) to 
$11.8 billion. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



12 

10 
8 
6 
4 
2 




BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Selected Durable Goods 



-<^- 




^ 



AUTOMOTIVE 
DEALERS 



FURNITURE AND 
APPLIANCE GROUP 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



1971 1972 



BILLIONS Of DOLLARS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



RETAIL SALES- 




AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


AUGUST ADVANCE 




1975 


1976 


1976 








Billions of Dollars 




Retail Sales, Total 




49.8 


53.8 


55.0 


Total Sales, Excluding 










Automotive Group 




41.0 


43.5 


44.1 


Durable Goods 




15.4 


17.7 


18.3 


Automotive Dealers 




8.8 


10.3 


10.9 


Furniture and Appliance 


Group 


2.2 


2.4 


2.5 


Nondurable Goods 




34.4 


36.1 


36.7 


Food Stores, Total 




11.2 


11.7 


11.8 


General Merchandise Group 








With Nonstores 




8.1 


8.4 


8.7 






ADVANCE REPORT ON MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE GOODS-AUGUST 



63 



August Nondefense 
Capital Goods Orders 
Fall a Record 11.7% 

According to advance data, 
new orders for nondefense 
capital goods (considered 
a barometer of capital 
spending plans by business) 
declined a record 1 1.7 per- 
cent ($1.55 billion) in August 
to $11.69 billion, after 
rising for 5 consecutive 



months. A sharp increase 
(83.7 percent) in new orders 
for defense capital goods 
was partially offsetting. 

Overall, new orders con- 
tinued to slip, down 2.2 
percent ($1.07 billion) to 
$47.66 billion in August. 
Half of the August decline 
occurred in the primary 
metals industry where orders 
fell 6.6 percent ($502 mil- 
lion) marking the third 



consecutive month of decline. 
Machinery industries (down 
$219 million) and transpor- 
tation equipment (down $298 
million) accounted for the 
other half of the decline. 
Shipments of durable 
goods increased 0.3 percent 
($152 billion) to $47.93 
billion after a 1.4-percent 
decline in July. Trans- 
portation (up $70 million) 
and machinery industries 



(up $35 million) accounted 
for most of the increase. 
The backlog of unfilled 
orders declined $275 million, 
the first contraction in 
6 months. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



I 1 1 

Advance Report on Manufacturers' 
Durable Goods— August 



/ 



UNFILLED ORDERS- 



NEW ORDERS 



/ 



!\ 




\ NEW ORDERS, EXCLUDING 
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 



r 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 



1972 1973 1974 1975 



1976 



ADVANCE REPORT ON 


AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE GOODS 1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




New Orders for Durable Goods 


42.18 


48.72 


47.66 


Nondefense Capital Goods 


10.39 


13.24 


11.69 


Defense Capital Goods 


2.55 


.99 


1.82 


Machinery Industries 


12.74 


14.58 


14.36 


Primary Metals 


6.40 


7.66 


7.16 


New Orders, Excluding Transportation 


32.42 


37.24 


36.47 


Shipments of Durable Goods 


42.44 


47.78 


47.93 


Machinery Industries 


12.77 


14.35 


14.39 


Transportation Equipment 


10.04 


11.09 


11.16 


Unfilled Orders, Durable Goods 


118.94 


117.41 


117.14 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



64 CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



Fruits, Vegetables, 
Apparel, Gas Push CPI 
Up 0.5% in August 

Consumer price increases 
continued the pattern of 
recent months. The all 
items index rose 0.5 percent 
in August (seasonally ad- 
justed), maintaining the pace 
exhibited in June and July. 
The August advance, which 
translates into an annual 



rate of 6 percent, stemmed 
from higher prices for a 
variety of goods and serv- 
ices, notably fruits and 
vegetables, apparel, and 
gasoline. The unadjusted 
index was 5.6 percent above 
August 1975 and was only 
5.4 percent above 12 months 
earlier in July. These 
were the smallest year-to- 
year increases since April- 
May 1973. 



The commodities index 
rose slightly more in August 
than in June or July, up 
0.5 percent compared to 0.4 
percent. The commodities 
less food group advanced 
0.6 percent, the same as in 
July, and the services group 
maintained its 0.6 percent 
rate of increase for the 
third month. 



EXPENDITURE CLASS-FOOI 

The food index moved up a 
modest 0.3 percent in August 
following a O.Tpercent 
increase in July. Reversing 
a 3-month decline, prices 
for fruits and vegetables 
rose sharply in August— up 
3 percent. A 1.4-percent 
drop in meats, poultry, and 
fish was partially offsetting. 



200 -r 



INDEX, 1967=100 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



Consumer Price Index— All Items 



PERCENT CHANGE 
FROM A YEAR AGO' 
-(Scale at right) 




PERCENT 
15 



12 





AUG 


JULY 


AUG 


CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 


1975 


1976 


1976 


ALL ITEMS. TOTAL' 








(Index, 1967-100) 


162.8 


171.1 


171.9 


Percent Change From a Year Ago" 


+8.6 


+5.4 
Index, 1967=100 


+5.6 


COMMODITY AND SERVICE GROUPS 








All Commodities, Total 


160.1 


165.6 


166.4 


Commodities Less Food 


150.7 


156.9 


157.9 


Services 


167.6 


181.0 


182.0 


EXPENDITURE CLASSES 








Food 


177.5 


181.2 


181.8 


Meats, Poultry, and Fish 


186.5 


181.0 


178.5 


Fruits and Vegetables 


172.9 


168.2 


173.3 


Housing 


167.7 


177.5 


178.4 


Fuel Oil and Coal 


241.8 


251.1 


255.7 


Health and Recreation 


154.6 


163.7 


164.4 


Medical Care Services 


181.4 


197.9 


199.0 


Transportation 


152.7 


166.1 


167.5 


Gasoline and Motor Oil 


176.3 


176.6 


179.2 


Transportation Services 


151.9 


174.7 


175.5 


Apparel and Upkeep 


143.4 


147.8 


149.1 


Apparel Commodities 


142.3 


145.8 


147.4 



*Not seasonally adjusted. 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1 974 



1975 



1976 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX. 1967=100 




200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX, 1967=100 





Expen 


r 

diture Clas 


s— Food 
























M 


EATS, POUL 
AND 


TRY, |\ 
: ISH 


















Cj^FRl 

V VEC 


IITS AND 
5ETABLES 




































yf—tooz 


.TOTAL 














































1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 liJU 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES 



Housing 

The housing index moved up 
0.5 percent in August com- 
pared to 0.6 percent in 
July. The August advance 
reflects a larger increase 
in fuel oil and coal— up 
1.8 percent to a new high 
of 255.7. 



INDEX, 1967-100 



Apparel and Upkeep 

The apparel and upkeep 
index rose more in August 
than in July, up 0.9 per- 
cent compared with 0.6 
percent. The apparel commod- 
ities index, which accounted 
for about one-third of the 
rise in nonfood commodities, 
increased 1.1 percent, the 
largest advance in 2 years. 




60 



40 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX. 1967-100 



20 



Expenditure Class— Apparel 
and Upkeep 



-^^_ 



,.•»»*' 



QQ I I ■ ■ . ■ i ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ I i 



,— ' 



APPAREL AND UPKEEP- 



\ 



■ ■»»» 



#»•• 



*•? 



* APPAREL COMMODITIES- 



Transportation 



The transportation index 
rose 0.8 percent, slightly 
less than in recent months. 
Gasoline and motor oil 
increased 1.5 percent, the 
same as in July; but trans- 
portation services rose less 
due to a smaller increase 
in auto insurance and a 
slight decline in public 
transportation. 
INDEX ,1967-1 00 



65 
Health and Recreation 



Health and recreation rose 
0.4 percent in August 
following a 0.6-percent 
gain in July. The smaller 
increase reflects a slower 
rise in the cost of medical 
care services— up 0.6 
percent, about half the 
increase posted in July. 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



1 QQ I i i ■ t i i I i i i i I i i ■ i ■ i i i i i i 1 i i i i i t i i i i i I i t i i i t p i | i | ■ ■ i i ! i > | ■ | a„ 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 




200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX, 1967-100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



66 WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



Lower Farm, Food, Feed 
Prices Edge Wholesale 
Index Down in August 

The unadjusted wholesale 
price index declined 0.3 
percent in August to 1 83.7. 
On a seasonally-adjusted 
basis, the August index de- 
clined 0.1 percent; only 
the third time in 1976 that 
it has declined. 



The decline on a season- 
ally-adjusted basis was 
caused entirely by lower 
prices for both farm products 
and processed foods and feeds. 
Indexes for farm products 
and processed foods and feeds 
both declined 2.9 percent 
following smaller July 
decreases of about 1 percent. 

Among farm products, prices 
for plant and animal fibers 



dropped 13.5 percent, after 
rising a total of 22.4 per- 
cent since February. Hay, 
hayseeds, and oilseeds de- 
clined 10 percent after 
reporting increases in each 
of the 3 previous months. 

Within the processed food 
and feed groups, sugar and 
confectionery decreased 
9.4 percent to 186.3-the 
lowest level since August 
1974. Animal fats and oils 



1974. Animal fats and oils 
declined for the first time 
in 5 months. 

The industrial commodities 
index rose 0.7 percent, about 
the same as in July and June. 
Fuels and related products 
and power continued to rise, 
increasing 1.8 percent. 
Lumber and wood products 
rose 2.7 percent to a new 
high of 206.7. 



INDEX, 1967=100 



PERCEr 



INDEX, 1967=100 



200 -r 



175 



150 



125 



100 



Wholesale Price Index, All 
Commodities Total 



ALL COMMODITIES INDEX' 
(scale at left) 



PERCENT CHANGE, 
(scale at right) 



J ^J [r<ijULr\ 



I 



JIp, 



* i . i . i i i i t 



II 



id 



v 




>h 



■ ■ ■ ■ 



450 



400 



350 



300 



250 



1971 



1972 



1973 



WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



1974 



AUG. 
1975 



1975 



JULY 
1976 



1976 



3 200 



150 



AUG. 
1976 



100 



ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL' 

(Index, 1967=100) 
Percent Change From Preceding Month, 

Seasonally Adjusted 

Farm Products 

Plant and Animal Fibers 

Hay, Hayseeds and Oilseeds 
Processed Foods and Feeds 

Animal Fats and Oils 

Sugar and Confectionery 
Industrial Commodities 

Fuel and Related Products 
and Power 

Lumber and Wood Products 

'Not seasonally adjusted. 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



176.7 



184.3 



183.7 



0.9 


0.3 
Index, 1967=100 


-0.1 




192.7 


193.4 


187.7 


300 


157.2 


265.8 


229.9 




199.3 


233.0 


209.6 




184.8 


180.8 


175.6 


250 


368.7 


226.2 


199.2 




244.9 


205.6 


186.3 




171.5 


181.0 


183.0 


200 


250.1 


261.9 


266.7 




179.0 


201.3 


206.7 


150 
100 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 





I 

Processed Foods 
and Feeds 


r 
























ANIMAL 


FATS AN DC 


)ILS 
















/i 


































PROCESSED FOODS 








*^*~ SUG 


c\H AND COr 



AND FEEDS, TOTAL 
I 
«JFECTIONERY 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 






AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

Farmers' Prices Down 
4% by Mid-August; 
Costs Dip Only 0.5% 

The index of prices received 
by farmers for their products 
decreased 8 points (4 percent) 
to 187 during the month 
ended August 15. This was 
the sharpest decline since 
November 1975. 

Prices paid by farmers 
for commodities and services, 



interest, taxes, and farm 
wage rates edged down 1 
point (0.5 percent) from the 
revised July index. 

The ratio of prices re- 
ceived to prices paid 
decreased to 96 percent. 
This was the lowest ratio 
since March 1976 and, before 
then, the lowest ratio was 
recorded in April 1972. 



Meat Animal Prices 
Down 6%; Oil-Bearing 
Crops Decline 9% 

The index of prices received 
by farmers for meat animals 
declined 10 points (6 percent) 
to 166; hog prices, showing 
the largest decline, were 
down $5.10 per cwt to $42.60. 
Feed grains and hay decreased 
16 points (7 percent) to 
226. Oil-bearing crops 



67 

dropped 21 points (9 percent) 
to 219; soybeans at $6.07 
per bushel were 66 cents 
lower than in mid-July. 

The production goods index 
was 1 point (0.5 percent) 
below mid-July. Lower prices 
for feed and feeder live- 
stock more than offset higher 
prices for building and 
fencing materials. The 
family living index was 
unchanged. 



INDEX. 1967=100 



INDEX. 1967-100 




1971 



1972 1973 



1975 



1976 



240 



1971 1972 

INDEX, 1967=100 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



AGRICULTURAL PRICES 



AUG. 15, JULY 15, AUG. 15, 

1975 1976 1976 



Prices Received by Farmers 
Meat Animals 
Feed Grains and Hay 
Oil-Bearing Crops 

Prices Paid by Farmers 
Family Living Items 
Production Items 



Index, 1967=100 

194 195 187 

181 176 166 

246 242 226 

211 240 219 



184 


196 


169 


177 


186 


199 




g Q I ..... 1 lii.ii.n.i.l.nMininlniiniLniliimiliiiill i.j_i llllllll 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



68 HOUSING PERMITS, BY STATE 



California, Texas, 
Florida, Illinois Lead 
in '75 Housing Permits 

More than a quarter of all 
new housing units authorized 
by permits in 1975 were 
concentrated in California, 
Texas, Florida, and Illinois. 
Of the 949,234 units author- 
ized for the United States 
in 1975, 281,311 were in 
these four States. The total 



authorized in California was 
131,248; Texas, 62,749; 
Florida, 47,989; and 
Illinois, 39,325. Other . 
leading States in authorized 
housing were Ohio, Michigan, 
Washington, Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania, and New York. 
These six together with the 
four leaders accounted for 
more than half of the new 
units authorized. 



The northernmost North- 
eastern States as well as 
the Midwestern States were 
characterized by low levels 
of housing permit authori- 
zations. Vermont authorized 
the lowest number of housing 
permits— 1,768 units. 



New Public and 
Private Housing 
Units Authorized 
in 14,000 Permit 
Issuing Places, 
by State: 
1975 




THOUSANDS OF 
HOUSING PERMITS 

40.0 or more 
25.0 to 39.9 
15.0 to 24.9 
10.0 to 14.9 
5.0 to 9.9 
Less than 5.0 

949.2 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



HOUSING PERMITS, BY STATE 



69 



Permit Authorizations 
Drop 12.8% in U.S. 
From 1974 to 1975 

The number of housing permits 
authorized in the United 
States declined 1 2.8 per- 
cent between the years 1974 
and 1975. 

Even though Texas and 
Florida reported high 1975 
levels of permit authori- 
zations, the numbers declined 



10.3 percent and 56.7 per- 
cent, respectively, from 
1974. The 56.7-percent 
Florida decline was the 
highest in the Nation. 
California and Illinois re- 
ported increases of 1.7 
percent and 6.6 percent, 
respectively. 

States recording high 
percent increases were 
concentrated in the Mid- 
western and Northwestern 



States. North Dakota rose 
50 percent during this 
period, the highest increase 
among the States. 

In most Northeastern and 
Southern States, there was 
a trend for declines in 
permit authorizations 
between 1974 and 1975. 
Authorizations in New York 
showed the greatest decline 
in the Northeastern region— 
36.9 percent. 



Percent change in 
New Public and 
Private Housing 
Units Authorized 
in 14,000 Permit- 
Issuing Places, 
by State: 
1974-1975 




PERCENT CHANGE IN 
HOUSING PERMITS 

25.0 or more 
10.0 to 24.9 

to 9.9 
-1.0 to -9.9 
-10.0 to -24.9 
—25.0 or more 

U.S. = -12.8% 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



70 HOUSING STARTS & PERMITS 



August Housing Starts 
Gain 11%; Multifamily 
Structures Set Pace 

Housing starts for August 
rose 1 1 percent to a season- 
ally-adjusted annual rate of 
1,542,000 units. The August 
rate was 22 percent ahead of 
the August 1975 pace of 
1,264,000 units. Units in 
multifamily structures, up 
86,000 units, led the overall 



increase. Single-family 
units rebounded 5.8 percent 
to a rate of 1,195,000 units 
after the July decline. 
Starts were up in all 
regions, with the North 
Central having the largest 
gain, 47,000 units (13.2 
percent). 



July-to-August Permits 
Increase 6.8%; Year- 
Long Rise Is 30% 

Privately-owned housing 
construction was authorized 
in August at a seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate of 
1,298,000 units in 14,000 
permit-issuing places, a 
6.8-percent increase from 
revised July figures and 30 
percent above August 1975. 



August's increase was 
paced by a 51,000-unit 
increase in multifamily 
structure permits. 

Permit activity rose in 
all regions except the South. 
The Northeast posted the 
largest gain— 17 percent 
(24,000 units). 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



3,000 



2,500 



2.000 



1.500 



1.000 



500 




' i i ......... . 



3,000 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



New Private Housing Units Authorized 
( 14,000 Permit-Issuing Places) 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 



972 1973 1974 1975 1976 




1971 1972 

HOUSING STARTS 



1973 



1974 

AUG 

1975 



1975 

JULY 
1976 



1976 



AUG 
1976 



1971 1972 1973 

HOUSING AUTHORIZATIONS 



1974 

AUG 
1975 



1975 

JULY 
1976 



1976 

AUG 

1976 



TOTAL UNITS STARTED 

Single-Family Units 

Units in Multifamily Structures 

BY REGION 
Northeast 
North Central 
South 
West 





Thousands of Units 




1,264 
979 
285 


1,391 

1.130 

261 


1,542 

1,195 

347 


150 
338 
484 
292 


136 
355 
548 
352 


164 
402 
587 
389 



TOTAL UNITS AUTHORIZED 

Single-Family Units 

Units in Multifamily Structures 

BY REGION 
Northeast 
North Central 
South 
West 



Thousands of Units 




998 1,215 


1,298 


725 870 


902 


273 345 


396 


140 141 


165 


249 280 


313 


317 395 


391 


292 399 


429 






SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 



71 



Public Building Drop 
Paces 1.5% Decline 
in New Construction 

In July, the value of new 
construction work done de- 
clined 1.5 percent to an 
annual rate of $141.5 bil- 
lion (in current dollars), 
$2.2 billion below the 
upwardly revised level of 
activity in June. 



As measured in constant 
1967 dollars, new construction 
activity dropped $2 billion 
to $70.2 billion, the lowest 
level since August 1975. 

Public construction, drop- 
ping 7.4 percent to $17.4 
billion, accounted for about 
two-thirds of the decline in 
construction activity. 

Private construction drop- 
ped $0.7 billion to an annual 
pace of $52.8 billion. 



Residential Building 
Gains; Industrial 
Construction Falls 

The July decline reflected 
a $0.5 billion decline to 
$1 1 .9 billion in nonresiden- 
tial construction that was 
partially offset by a $0.2 
billion increase to $30 bil- 
lion in the annual rate of 
residential construction. 



Most of the decline in new 
nonresidential construction 
occurred in the industrial 
buildings component, which 
dropped 1 1.8 percent to $3 
billion, a 5-year low. 

Both major components of 
residential housing— single- 
family and multifamily 
structures— recorded small in- 
creases. Single-family units 
rose 1 percent and multiunit 
structures rose 2.6 percent. 





B ILL IONS OF DOLLARS 














u 


Value of 
Work Do 


I 
New Const 

ne 


r 

ruction 








u 






r 


▼ H 


/ 




u 




J 




TOTA 


..CURRENT 


DOLLARS 


u 


s 


' 










u 


/ 












u 














u 




PUBLIC CO 


NSTRUCTIO 


[__TOTA 
^Cl967 C 

N [^ 


., CONSTAN 
OLLARS 


T 


u 










I f r^ 


A, 




jH 


r^ 














LjjA 


PRIVATE C 


ONSTRUCT 


ON 


\_-i- 


A 




u 














u 














u 




























0- 















50 



40 



30 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



30 



20 



10 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Private Residential 
Construction 



fNv* 




TOTAL 



SINGLE-FAMILY 
STRUCTURES 



1971 1972 1973 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



1974 1975 1976 



1 r~ 

Private Nonresidential 
Construction 



TOTAL 



-COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS- 



INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

i i i i i i i i i i i I i i i i i i i i r i i I i i i i i i l i i i i 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




CURRENT DOLLARS, TOTAL 


133.1 


143.7 


141.5 


CONSTANT 1967 DOLLARS, TOTAL 


70.3 


72.2 


70.2 


Private Construction 


49.8 


53.5 


52.8 


Residential Buildings 


26.5 


29.8 


30.0 


Single-Family Structures 


15.6 


20.0 


20.2 


Multifamily Structures 


3.6 


3.9 


4.0 


Nonresidential Buildings 


13.2 


12.4 


11.9 


Commercial 


6.3 


6.0 


5.9 


Industrial 


4.2 


3.4 


3.0 


Public Construction 


20.6 


18.8 


17.4 



72 FEDERAL CONSTRUCTION 



South, West Receive 
Most 1975 Federal 
Construction Jobs 

Federal contract awards in 
1975 amounted to $3.78 bil- 
lion, which was a 1.2- 
percent increase over the 
1974 amount of $3.74 billion. 
(A Federal contract 
award is a contract that 
has been awarded to 



build a Federally owned 
construction project.) 

The region totals in 1975 
were: Northeast-$257.9 
million (down 22 percent from 
1974); North Central-$529.9 
million (up 10 percent from 
1974) ;South-$1 .3 billion 
(down 6 percent from 1974); 
and West -$1.31 billion (up 
4 percent from 1974). 
California was the 8tate 



with the highest 1975 awards, 
a total of $370.6 million, 
while Vermont was the 
lowest with $1 .2 million. 

NOTE: $152.1 million in 
1975 and $31.9 million in 
1974 were not allocated to 
8tates due to projects 
crossing State boundaries. 









Federal Contract Awards: 76 . 1 [ 


1975 


56.8| 




135.6 | 






22 . 8 [ 


[ 


370.6 






102.4| 




7.91 
5.6T 




49.0| 




154 . 7 [_ 




108. 3 | 




143.6| 




27 .0 | 




55.5 [ 




17.8 
18.4 






139.7| 




183.2| 




116.7| 




10.8| 




68.6| 




25.0| 




42.7| 




5.8| 




REGION: 37. 6 £ 






138 . 2 


NUK 1 MLAo 1 _ _ j" ' ■ 

NORTH CENTRAL 1 3 . 7 | 

25.6 | 
SOUTH 1 2 7T - 








WEST 30 ' 7 I 


107 .9 | 




90.8 | 




56. 7 |_ 




24.0| 




51. 1 | 




67.3 \_ 




29. 3| 




67.0| 




1 1 .8 | 




69.7| 




15.8| 




129.7| 




198.6 L 




72 5 | 




1.2 1 




1 35 . 6 | 




206. 9 | 




48 . 5 1_ 




— r 


7 . 2 1 
13.4 § 

1 I I I 1 1 



ALABAMA 

ALASKA 

AR I ZONA 

ARKANSAS 

CAL I FORN I A 

COLORADO 

CONNECT I CUT 

DELAWARE 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

FLOR I DA 

GEORG I A 

HAWA I I 

IDAHO 

ILLINOIS 

INDIANA 

IOWA 

KANSAS 

KENTUCKY 

LOUISIANA 

MAINE 

MARYLAND 

MASSACHUSETTS 

M I CH I GAN 

MINNESOTA 

MISSISSIPPI 

M I SSOUR I 

MONTANA 

NEBRASKA 

NEVADA 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

NEW JERSEY 

NEW MEXICO 

NEW YORK 

NORTH CAROLINA 

NORTH DAKOTA 

OHIO 

OKLAHOMA 

OREGON 

PENNSYLVANIA 

RHODE ISLAND 

SOUTH CAROL I NA 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

TENNESSEE 

TEXAS 

UTAH 

VERMONT 

V I RG I N I A 

WASH I NGTON 

WEST VIRGINIA 

WISCONSIN 

WYOMING 



400 350 



300 250 200 150 100 
MILL IONS OF DOLLARS 



50 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 





~]i39 6 Federal Contract Awards: 


| 108.8 1974 


|70.5 


133.2 


// 523.3 


J76.9 


J 29 . 3 
TT7 


|76.9 


J 161 . 6 


| 6 1 . 7 


|91.8 


|24.5 


| 50. 1 


| 60. 1 


| 22. 8 


| 44. 8 


■ 145 . 9 


| 151.5 


15.1 


J 74. 2 


J 59. 1 


| 30. 8 


| 65. 4 


J 105. 4 


J 24 . 4 

]~5~. 3 
121.1 
f 18 .0 

~| 29 . 5 


1 74 .8 


|99.4 


|79.5 


| 24 .0 


181.3 


J 7 5. 9 


|45.1 


| 85. 2 


| 4 . 9 


136.4 


| 28 . 8 


] 185 .6 


J 165.3 


J38.6 


| 0.3 


|151.4 


I 155.0 


1,7.1 
J 25. 1 
|8 . 2 


I I I I i i i 

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



EXPENDITURES FOR NEW PLANT & EQUIPMENT 



Capital Spending 

for 1976 Expected To 

Total $121 Billion 

According to the survey con- 
ducted in July and August, 
actual spending for new plant 
and equipment rose 3 percent 
during the second quarter 
of 1976 to a seasonally- 
adjusted annual rate of 
$118.1 billion. This was 
about 2.5 percent below the 



May projection, chiefly re- 
flecting downward revisions 
in nondurable goods, public 
utilities, and communica- 
tions. However, increases 
of 4.1 percent and 3.3 per- 
cent are planned for the 
third and fourth quarters, 
respectively, bringing the 
1976 total to $121.2 billion; 
virtually unchanged from 
the May forecast and 7.4 
percent above 1975. 



Capital spending by non- 
manufacturing industries 
rose 3 percent in the second 
quarter. Further increases 
of 2.5 percent and 2.3 per- 
cents are projected for the 
third and fourth quarters 
for a full-year outlay of 
$68.4 billion. The largest 
increase for the year is 
planned by public utilities 
(13 percent). 



73 

Second-quarter spending 
by manufacturing industries 
increased 2.9 percent, and 
gains of 6.3 percent and 4.6 
percent are planned for the 
third and fourth quarters 
for an annual total of $52.8 
billion. Producers of non- 
durable goods plan a 13-per- 
cent increase for the year, 
and producers of durable 
goods plan a 7-percent gain. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



14 



21 



28 



35 



1 1 

Expenditures for New Plant 
and Equipment 



ALL INDUSTRIES. 




NONMANUFACTURING 

INDUSTRIES \ 




1971 1972 1973 

*Projections shown as dash lines. 



974 



1975 



1976 





1 ST 


2ND 




EXPENDITURES FOR 


QTR 


QTR 




NEW PLANT & EQUIPMENT 


1976 


1976 


1976** 






Billions of Dollars 




All Industries 


114.72 


118.12 


121.15 


Non manufacturing 


65.51 


67.48 


68.38 


Manufacturing 


49.21 


50.64 


52.77 



'Projected total. 



OTHER TRANS- 
PORTS I ON 



C0MMUN I - 
CAT I ONS 



PUBL I C 
UTILITIES 



1 — 

ZL.2.1 

__|3.2 
| 3.5 


\ r 

Compor 
Manufa< 


1 

ents of 

luring Industries 

1974 
1975 


J 14.0 


Tj2 . 7 




_H 13.9 


Expected 1976 










n 


20.5 




I 20 . 






1 


1 1 


1 



14 



21 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



14 



21 



28 



28 



35 



35 



DURABLE 

GOODS, 

TOTAL 




STONE, CLAY, 
GLASS 



NONDURABLE 

GOODS, 

TOTAL 



FOOD AND 
BEVERAGES 



TEXTILES 



PAPER 



PETROLEUM 



RUBBER 



22.6 



T2 1 .8 



|23.4 



Components of 

Non manufacturing 
Industries 



1974 
1975 
Expected 1976 



123.4 

I 2 6 1 



|29.4 




|3.5 



~l8 



]10.5 
| 1 1 .8 




14 2 1 28 
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



35 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



74 CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



Consumer Credit Growth 
Slows in July; Smallest 
Rise in 5 Months 

Reflecting the recent slow- 
down in retail sales, total 
consumer credit outstanding 
posted the smallest increase 
in 5 months. Consumer debt 
was expanded by $1 .30 billion 
in July compared to $1.33 
billion in June. 



The total amount of 
credit extended during the 
month declined $352 million 
from June to a seasonally- 
adjusted $15.2 billion. 
Total liquidations of credit 
(repayments, chargeoffs, 
and other credits) declined 
$324 million to $13.9 bil- 
lion. 

The growth in automobile 
debt exceeded the June gain 
but was offset by a smaller 



increase in debt for "all 
other" purposes. Outstand- 
ing auto credit rose $556 
million in July compared to 
$526 million in June, and 
"all other" credit rose 
$567 million compared to 
$655 million. 

Outstanding credit held 
by commercial banks was 
expanded by $619 million in 
July following a $410 mil- 
lion increase in June. 



Holdings by credit unions 
rose more slowly in July 
than in June— up $365 million 
compared to $482 million. 



17 



15 



13 



1 1 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



-1 















Consi 


jmer Instal 


ment Cred 


* 
























i 


.A/*' 




EXTE 


^JSIONS 




s~A 




















— /i^L 


IQUIDATIO 


VJS 


























































































NE 


.T CHANGE 


IN CONSUM 


ER INSTALL 


MENTCREC 


IT 


n-T 1 


rJ-WT^ 


"L-nji 


n,r-n 


ny 


U~^ 


r^ 






J lJ l 


n r 










L 


r J ull 





1974 



1975 



1976 



Type of Consumer Installment Credit 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 r~ 

AUTOMOBILE CREDIT 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 

Holders of Consumer Installment Credit 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1976 





JULY 


JUNE 


JULY 


5 


CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 


1975 


1976 


1976 


4 


TOTAL INSTALLMENT CREDIT 




Millions of Dollars 




3 


Extensions 


14.089 


15,592 


15,240 


2 


Liquidations 


12,803 


14.261 


13,937 


1 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+ 1.286 


+ 1,330 


+ 1,303 




BY TYPE OF CREDIT 











Automobile 










Extensions 


4,104 


4,600 


4,477 




Liquidations 


3,719 


4,074 


3,922 


9 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+385 


+526 


+556 


8 


"All Other" 








Extensions 


7,309 


7,786 


7,546 


7 


Liquidations 


6,539 


7,132 


6,979 


6 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+7 70 


+655 


+567 




BY HOLDER OF CREDIT 








5 


Commercial Banks 








4 


Extensions 


6,441 


7,289 


7.358 


3 


Liquidations 


6,035 


6.879 


6,739 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+406 


+410 


+619 


2 


Credit Unions 










Extensions 


2,098 


2,456 


2,329 




Liquidations 


1.782 


1,974 


1,964 





Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+316 


+482 


+365 






A LI I I I I I I 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



CREDIT UNIONS 




971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 



BUSINESS INCORPORATIONS & FAILURES 



New Incorporations 
Total 328,781 in '75; 
Failures Increase 15% 

Since 1950, the number of 
new business incorporations 
has increased more than two- 
fold. In the past 4 years 
over 300,000 new businesses 
have been incorporated each 
year. In 1975, there were 
328,781 new business 
incorporations, slightly 



below the post-war high 
established in 1973. 

In 1975, 42.6 businesses 
failed for every 10,000 
concerns, up from a level 
of 38.4 in 1974. After 
hitting a post-war high of 
64.4 failures per 10,000 
concerns in 1961, the rate 
steadily declined to 37.3 
in 1969, and since then has 
fluctuated from year to 
year. 



In 1975, a total of 
11,412 industrial and 
commercial failures were 
recorded, a 15-percent in- 
crease from 1974. This was 
the highest level in the 8 
years since 1967 when there 
were 12,364 failures. The 
number of failures has in- 
creased in the past 2 years, 
but there were about 6,000 
fewer failures in 1975 than 
in 1961. 



75 

All industries reported 
an increase in the number of 
failures in 1975. Commercial 
service and construction 
casualties increased at 
sharp paces of 24 and 22.9 
percent, respectively. Whole- 
sale and retail trade and 
manufacturing and mining 
reported more moderate rises 
of 13.3 percent and 5.7 per- 
cent, respectively. 



THOUSANDS 



NUMBER PER 10.000 CONCERNS 



New Business Incorporations 



/ 



—I ' ' L_ 



_ I I I 1_ 




/~ 



1950 



1955 



1960 



BUSINESS INCORPORATIONS 
& FAILURES 



1965 



1950 



1970 



1960 




1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 



THOUSANDS 



1975 



1975 







Thousands 




New Business Incorporations 


93.1 


182.7 


328.8 


Industrial and Commercial Failures, 








Total 


9.2 


15.4 


11.4 


Wholesale and Retail Trade 


5.4 


8.9 


5.9 


Construction 


0.9 


2.6 


2.3 


Manufacturing and Mining 


2.1 


2.6 


1.6 


Commercial Service 


0.7 


1.4 


1.6 



Failure Annual Rate 



Number per 

10,000 Concerns 

34.3 57.0 42.6 




1965 



1970 



1975 



SOURCE DUN AND BRADSTREET, INC.; COPYRIGHT 



76 BUSINESS CONDITIONS INDICATORS 



Composite Index Up 
for 17th Straight 
Month; Now at 109.5 

On the basis of preliminary 
data, the Composite Index 
of Leading Indicators (an 
indication of future business 
activity) rose 0.5 percent 
in July and now stands at 
109.5. The index has 
risen for 17 consecutive 
months, the longest stretch 



of uninterrupted rises since 
the 20-month period from 
December 1953 through July 
1955. 

In July, 6 of the 12 
indicators that make up the 
index showed improvement: 
layoff rate, net business 
formation, contracts and 
orders for plant and equip- 
ment in 1967 dollars, build- 
ing permits, stock prices, 
and money balance in 1967 



dollars. Five moved in an 
unfavorable direction: 
average workweek, new orders 
in 1972 dollars, vendorper- 
formance, change in sensitive 
prices, and change in total 
liquid assets. One was not 
available: change of in- 
ventories on hand and on 
order. 

The series contributing 
most to the increase was 
building permits, which 



rose 5.7 percent. Of the 
series which declined, new 
orders in 1972 dollars had 
the largest influence on 
the index, down 2 percent. 



MO 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



90 



80 



INDEX, 1967-100 



Composite Index of Leading Indicators 



\ 




, 1 L I L I 1 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



225 
200 

175 
150 
125 
100 
75 
50 



INDEX, 1967=100 



1 

Building Permits 






















/ 












v 
















^y 














V 



















BUSINESS CONDITIONS 
INDICATORS 



JULY 
1975 



Composite Index of Leading Indicators 

(1967=100) 
Building Permits (1967 = 100) 
New Orders-Manufacturers of 

Consumer Products and Materials 

(Billions of 1972 Dollars) 



102.1 
87.6 



28.56 



JUNE 
1976 



109.0 
99.1 



32.15 



JULY 
1976 



109.5 
104.7 



31.51 



197 1 



1972 



973 



1974 1975 



976 



40 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 



35 — 



30 



25 



20 





1 

New Orders — Manuf 
Products and 


r 

acturers of 


r 

Consumer 








Materials 
































» ' • » » » 


• • i i • > > • > i i 







1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



Section IV 



other 
trends 



77 



International Travel To 
& From the U.S. 

Arrivals of Tourists to 
the United States: First 6 
Months of 1975 and 1976 78 

Arrivals of Tourists to the 
United States, by Geographic 
Area of Origin: First 6 
Months of 1975 and 1976 78 

Top Five Tourist-Generating 

Overseas Countries: First 

6 Months of 1975 and 1976 78 

Departures of U.S. Citizens: 
First 6 Months of 1975 and 
1976 79 

Departures of U.S. 
Citizens, by Geographic Area 
of Destination: First 6 
Months of 1975 and 1976 79 



Public Attitudes Toward 
Science & Technology 

"Do You Feel That Science 
and Technology Have Changed 
Life for the Better or for 
the Worse?" 80 

"Which One of These Items 
Best Describes Your General 
Reaction to Science and 
Technology?" 80 

"Overall, Would You Say That 
Science and Technology Do 
More Good Than Harm, More 
Harm Than Good, or About the 
Same Each?" 80 

Benefits From Science and 
Technology 80 

Harmful Effects of Science 
and Technology 80 

"Do You Feel That Science and 
Technology Will Eventually 
Solve Most Problems Such as 
Pollution, Disease, Drug 
Abuse, and Crime; Some of 
These Problems; or Few, if 
Any of These Problems?" 81 

"In Which of the Areas Listed 
Would You Most Like (and 
Least Like) to Have Your Taxes 
Spent for Science and 
Technology?" 81 



Automobile Operating 
Costs 

First Year Operating 
Costs for 1976 Model 
Automobiles 82 

Estimated Operating Cost 
Per Mile: 1976 Model 
Automobiles 82 

Estimated Annual Gasoline 
and Oil Costs (Including State 
and Federal Taxes), by Size 
of Automobile and Year of 
Operation 83 

Estimated Maintenance Costs 
(Including Federal Excise 
Tax on Tires), by Size of 
Automobile and Year of 
Operation 83 

Farm Production 
& Income 

Crop and Livestock 
Production: 1960-1976 84 

Crop Acreage Harvested: 
1960-1976 84 

Farm Income 85 

Cost of a Market Basket of 
Farm Foods 85 

Farm- Retail Spread 85 

Employment & 
Unemployment 
of Artists 

Total Writers, Artists, and 
Entertainers in Labor Force, 
Employed and Unemployed: 
1970-1975 86 



Unemployment Rate for 
Writers, Artists, and 
Entertainers: 
1970-1975 86 

Unemployment Rates for 
Selected Occupations: 
1974 and 1975 86 



Federal Recreation 
Fees 

Number of Federal 
Recreation Fee-Management 
Areas: 1975 87 

Amount of Federal 
Recreation Fees 
Collected: 1975 87 

Annual Visitation to 
Federal Recreation 
Fee-Management Areas: 
1975 87 

Public Reaction to 
Facilities and Fees: 
1974-1975 87 

Public Awareness of 
Golden Eagle/Golden Age 
Passports: 1974-1975 87 



78 INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL TO & FROM THE U.S. 



Overseas Tourists Up 
18.8% in First Half of '76; 
Europeans Lead Areas 

The United States hosted 
approximately 7.4 million 
international visitors dur- 
ing the first 6 months of 
the 1976 bicentennial year, 
10.6 percent more than dur- 
ing the same period in 1975. 

The first half of 1976 
saw 4.6 million Canadian 



visitors travel to the U.S., 
a 10.6-percent increase 
over the first half of 1975. 
Mexican arrivals in the U.S. 
numbered 948,221 during 
the first 6 months of the 
year, a decrease of 2.8 per- 
cent from 1975. 

During the same period, 
arrivals from overseas 
countries (excluding Canada 
and Mexico) increased 18.8 



percent compared to the 
first half of 1975. 

Arrivals from all major 
geographical areas overseas 
rose above the 1975 levels 
for the 6-month period. 

European arrivals to the 
U.S. increased 27.9 percent 
over the first half of 1 975. 
Increases were recorded in 
each of the major European 
markets: United Kingdom, 
up 23.6 percent; West Germany, 



up 24.3 percent; and France, 
up 39.2 percent. 

Asian travel to the U.S. 
increased 3.2 percent during 
the first half of the year, 
although Japanese arrivals 
declined 7.9 percent for 
the period. 



THOUSANDS 



8,000 



6,000 



4,000 - 



2.000 



7,412 



6 , 701 



4, 554 



4,119 







TOTAL 
ARRIVALS 



ARRIVALS FROM 
CANADA 



Arrivals of Tourists to the United States: First 6 Months of 
1975 and 1976 



975 



948 



I 



ARRIVALS FROM 
MEXICO 



□ 



FIRST 6 MONTHS 
OF 1975 



1 .607 



IRST6 MONTHS 
F 1976 



1,910 



OVERSEAS 
ARR I VALS 



THOUSANDS 



1,000 



800- 



600- 



400 



200" 



820 



641 



481 



496 



80 



1 13 



22 29 

I 1 ZL 



EUROPE 



ASIA 



AFR I CA 



OCEANIA 



Arrivals of Tourists to the United States, by Geographic Area 
of Origin: First 6 Months of 1975 and 1976 



132 



153 



192 



222 



60 



76 



WEST 
INDIES 



CENTRAL 
AMER I CA 



SOUTH 
AMER I CA 



OTHER 
"Less than 1. 



600 



THOUSANDS 



400- 



200 



Top Five Tourist-Generating Overseas Countries: First 6 
Months of 1975 and 1976 



377 


^4 7 
















2 5 






1 Bb 












130 







162 






64 



90 



54 



JAPAN 



UNITED 
KINGDOM 



WEST 
GERMANY 



FRANCE 



AUSTRALIA 



SOURCE US TRAVEL SERVICE 



INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL TO & FROM THE U.S. 



Americans Traveling 
Abroad Down Slightly 
During First 6 Months 

Based on preliminary statis- 
tics, approximately 9.1 
million U.S. citizen traveled 
abroad to Canada, Mexico, 
and overseas countries dur- 
ing the first half of 1976, 
a 0.5-percent decline from 
the volume recorded during 
the same period in 1975. 



U.S. citizen departures 
to Canada during the 6-month 
1976 period totaled nearly 
4.2 million, representing 
an 8.4-percent drop from the 
first half of 1975. 

American citizens travel- 
ing to Mexico, during the 
first half of this year 
totaled an estimated 1.4 
million, a 3.5-percent 
increase over the 1975 
6-month volume. 



The number of U.S. citi- 
zens traveling abroad to 
overseas countries during 
the first 6 months of 1976 
are estimated at around 3.6 
million— 9 percent above the 
same period in 1975. 

Departures to Europe and 
the West Indies, the two 
most popular destinations 
of U.S. citizens, were 
estimated to have increased 
about 9 percent. Travel to 



79 

Africa, which represented 
less than 1 percent of over- 
seas travel in the first 
6 months of 1975, is estimat- 
ed to have doubled. Other 
overseas and cruise travel 
dipped 5.5 percent during 
the same period. In the 
first half of 1976, cruise 
travel accounted for about 
76 percent of this category, 
down from 90 percent in the 
same period of 1975. 





THOUSANOS 




























9,165 


9,122 






Departures of U.S. Citizens: First 6 Months of 
1975 and 1976 






3,000 - 












■ FIRST 6 MONTHS OF 1975 
1 FIRST 6 MONTHS OF 1976 


5,000 - 














•,000 - 








4,555 


4,172 










3,550 




3,257 






',000 - 












1,353 1,400 








0- 



























TOTAL 

DEPARTURES 

(EST.) 



DEPARTURES TO 
CANADA 



DEPARTURES TO 
MEXICO 
(EST.) 



OVERSEAS 

DEPARTURES 

(EST.) 



THOUSANDS 



,000 



500 - 



000 - 



500 - 



1,550 



1,367 



312 
261^_ 

21 43 56 63 
I I 1 I i 1 I L 



EUROPE 
(EST.) 



ASIA 
(EST.) 



AFRICA 
(EST.) 



OCEANIA 
(EST.) 



Departures of U.S. Citizens, by Geographic 
Area of Destination : First 6 Months of 
1975 and 1976 



B 



FIRST6 MONTHS OF 1975 
FIRST 6 MONTHS OF 1976 

995 



917 



63 81 



167 173 



406 384 



WEST 


CENTRAL 


SOUTH 


OTHER ANO 


INDIES 


AMER 1 CA 


AMER 1 CA 


CRUISE 


(EST.) 


(EST.) 


(EST.) 


(EST.) 



SOURCE U.S. TRAVEL SERVICE 



80 PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 



Belief in Favorable 
Scientific Results 
Rises to 75% 

The belief that science and 
technology have changed life 
for the better was expressed 
by 75 percent of the public 
in 1974, compared with 70 
percent in 1972. Five per- 
cent thought change was for 
the worse, down from 8 per- 
cent in 1972. 



The reaction of "satis- 
faction or hope" to science 
and technology was expressed 
by 56 percent of the people 
in 1974 versus 49 percent 
in 1972. In both years, a 
reaction of "excitement or 
wonder" was shared by 22 to 
23 percent of the public. 

More than half of those 
interviewed believed that 
science and technology did 
more good than harm. Almost 



one-third saw the extent of 
good and harm as being nearly 
the same, and only a negli- 
gible percentage said "more 
harm." Changes from 1972 
to 1974 were slight. 

Those responding "about 
the same" were asked to 
mention some benefits and 
harmful effects from science 
and technology. "Medical 
advances" were by far the 
most frequently mentioned 



benefit, followed by "new 
and improved products" and 
"space research." "Lack 
of concern for the environ- 
ment" was the most frequently 
mentioned harmful effect, 
followed by "development of 
military weapons," "space 
research," and "dangerous 
drugs and medicines." 



100 



PERCENT 



80 - 



60 - 



40 



20 - 



"Do You Feel That Science and 
Technology Have Changed Life 
for the Better or for the Worse?' 



75 



70 




1972 
1974 



11 11 



m 



100 



PERCENT 



50 - 



"Overall, Would You Say That Science and Technology 
Do More Good Than Harm, More Harm Than Good, 
or About the Same Each?" 

57 



54 






1972 
1974 



MORE 
GCOO 



ABOUT 
THE SAME 



MORE 

HARM 



1 1 10 



NO 

OPINION 



(Cited by Group Responding "About the Same") 



Benefits From 
Science and 
Technology 



BETTER WORSE BOTH NO NO 

EFFECT OPINION 



100 



PERCENT 



80 - 



60 - 



40 - 



20 - 



"Which One of These Items Best Describes 
Your General Reaction to Science 
and Technology?" 



56 



D 



1972 



1974 



49 




Harmful 
Effects of 
Science and 
Technology 



MEDICAL ADVANCES 

NEW AND IMPROVED 
PRODUCTS 

SPACE RESEARCH 

ENVIRONMENT AND 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

LIVING AND WORKING 
CONDITIONS 

FOOD AND 
AGRICULTURE 

ENERGY 

OTHER AND 
DON'T KNOW 



1 Less than 0.5 percent 



LACK OF CONCERN 
FOR THE ENVIRONMENT 



DEVELOPMENT OF 
MILITARY WEAPONS 



SPACE RESEARCH 



DANGEROUS DRUGS 
AND MEDICINES 



DEPLETION OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 




100 



OTHER AND 
DON'T KNOW 



SATIS- EXCITE- FEAR INDIFFERENCE NO 
FACTION MENT OR OR OR LACK OPINION 
OR HOPE WONDER ALARM OF INTEREST 




100 



SOURCE 'IATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD 



PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 



Health, Crime Problems 
Could Use More Money; 
Defense, Space Less 

About three-fourths of the 
public remained confident 
that science and technology 
would eventually solve at 
least some of the major 
problems named in the ques- 
tionnaire. The expectation 
that most problems would be 
solved declined to 23 percent 



in 1974. The trend toward 
a lower level of confidence 
was evident in the larger 
percentage of those who 
expect science and tech- 
nology to solve only "some" 
and "few" such problems. 

Areas in which the public 
would "most like" to see 
their tax money for science 
and technology spent were 
"health care" and "reducing 
crime." Two major shifts in 



public preferences occurred 
between 1972 and 1974: 
"reducing and controlling 
pollution" declined in 
the frequency of selec- 
tion, whereas "improving 
education" increased. 

Areas in which the public 
in 1974 indicated they would 
least like their taxes spent 
for science and technology 
were "space exploration" and 
"developing or improving 



81 

weapons for national defense." 

The relevance of science 
and technology for alleviat- 
ing or solving the problems 
involved was not considered 
explicitly. Thus, the re- 
sponse may reflect areas of 
general concern to the public 
without regard for the pos- 
sible specific role of science 
and technology in dealing 
with them. 



100 



PERCENT 



50 - 



"Do You Feel That Science and Technology Will Eventually Solve Most Problems Such as Pollution, 
Disease, Drug Abuse, and Crime; Some of These Problems; or Few, if Any, of These Problems?" 



30 



23 



53 

47 

rE 



16 



20 



MOST PROBLEMS 



SOME PROBLEMS 



FEW PROBLEMS 




' ■ ' — 



NO OPINION 



"In Which of the Areas Listed Would You Most Like (and Least Like) to Have Your Taxes Spent for Science and Technology?' 



B 



1972 



1974 



20 

18 




11 i — 


L7" 






11 




11 




;: 







100 



80 



60 40 

MOST LIKE 

PERCENT 



9 



IMPROVING 
HEALTH CARE 

REDUCING AND 

CONTROLLING 

POLLUTION 



REDUCING 
CRIME 

FINDING NEW 
METHODS FOR PRE- 
VENTING AND TREATING 
DRUG ADDICTION 

IMPROVING 
EDUCATION 



IMPROVING THE SAFETY 

OF AUTOMOBILES 

DEVELOPING FASTER 

AND SAFER PUBLIC 

TRANSPORTATION FOR 

TRAVEL WITHIN AND 

BETWEEN CITIES 

FINDING BETTER BIRTH 
CONTROL METHODS 

DISCOVERING NEW 

BASIC KNOWLEDGE 

ABOUT MAN 

AND NATURE 

WEATHER CONTROL 
AND PREDICTION 



SPACE 
EXPLORATION 

DEVELOPING OR 

IMPROVING WEAPONS 

FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 




NO OPINION 



20 



B 



1972 



1974 



30 
30 



13 



"T 



~T 



20 



40 60 

LEAST LIKE 

PERCENT 



80 



100 



SOURCE NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD 



82 AUTOMOBILE OPERATING COSTS 



'76 Car Operating 
Cost per Mile Ranges 
From 17.2% to 12.2% 

The average cost of operating 
a standard-size 1976 model 
automobile during the first 
year of ownership is esti- 
mated at $2,482. This cost 
compares to $1 ,580 for a 
compact-size automobile and 
S1.286 for a subcompact. 



For all three sizes of 
automobiles depreciation is 
the greatest contributor to 
first-year operating costs, 
averaging a $1,215 loss for 
standard automobiles, a 
$536 loss for compacts, and 
a S383 loss for subcompacts. 
The second greatest operat- 
ing cost is for gasoline 
and oil. 



The estimated average 
cost per mile for operating 
a 1976 model automobile 
ranges from 17.2 cents a 
mile for a standard-size to 
14 cents for a compact and 
12.2 cents for a subcompact. 
The per-mile estimates are 
based on 10 years of average 
use equaling 100,000 miles. 



NOTE: Costs include State 
and Federal taxes on gasoline 
and oil and Federal excise 
tax on tires. 












-i 1 1 1 r 



MA I NTENANCE , 

ACCESSOR I ES , 

PARTS AND TIRES 



GAS AND OIL 
(INCLUOING TAXES) 



PARKING. TOLLS 



J 



197 



168 
159 



First Year Operating 
Costs for 1976 Model 
Automobiles 



604 



STANDARD SIZE 

TOTAL OPERATING COST-52,482 

COMPACT SIZE 

TOTAL OPERATING COST-S1.580 

SUBCOMPACT SIZE 

TOTAL OPERATING COST-SI, 286 




1215 



100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 

DOLLARS 



COST PER MILE (CENTS) 







17.2 cents 


14 cents 


12.2 cents 




Estimated Operating Cost 
per Mile: 1976 Model 
Automobiles (10- Year 
Average -100,000 Miles) 




cents 










16 


















GAS AND OIL 






(INCLUDING TAXES) 
MAINTENANCE, 








ACCESSORIES, 

PARTS, TIRES 












DfcrREOIA I IUN 








STANDARD 
SIZE 


COMPACT 
SIZE 


SUBCOMPACT 
SIZE 







SOURCE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION 



AUTOMOBILE OPERATING COSTS 



Annual Gas, Oil Costs 
Decline From '74 to 76 
for New Car Operation 

The estimated annual cost to 
automobile owners for gaso- 
line and oil decreased from 
1974 to 1976, despite general 
price increases in auto 
costs. Average gasoline and 
oil costs for first-year 
operation of a subcompact 
car dropped from $366 in 



1974 to $318 in 1976, a 
13.1-percent decline. For the 
same period, the percent 
decrease in annual gasoline 
and oil costs (including 
taxes) was 1 1.2 percent for 
compacts, with no change for 
standard-size cars. 

The decreases in fuel 
costs have resulted from a 
number of factors, including 
the mandatory 55 mph speed 
laws (enacted in 1974) and 



the introduction of legis- 
lation aimed at increasing 
fuel efficiency in cars.* 
In recent years, manufacturers 
have, on a voluntary basis, 
made significant efforts 
in this area. 

Maintenance costs** 
increased at a slightly 
greater rate for subcompacts 
than for the other sizes of 
cars between 1974 and 1976. 



83 

First-year maintenance 
costs for a 1976 subcompact 
were 38 percent higher 
than for a 1974 subcompact. 
Comparable percentage in- 
creases for standard cars 
and compacts were 35 percent 
and 31 percent, respectively. 



*PL 94-163, Title 3. 

**Costs include Federal excise 
tax on purchase of tires. 



700 



DOLLARS 



600- 



500 - 



400- 



300 - 



200 - 



100- 



Estimated Annual Gasoline and Oil Costs (Including State and Federal Taxes), by Size of Automobile and Year of Operation 








s 



FIRST YEAR OF OPERATION 
SECOND YEAR OF OPERATION 




1972 



1974 

STANDARD 
SIZE 



1976 



1972 



1974 

COMPACT 
SIZE 



1976 



1972 



1974 

SUBCOMPACT 
SIZE 



1976 



300 



DOLLARS 



?50- 



!00- 



50- 



00 - 



50- 



Estimated Maintenance Costs (Including Federal Excise Tax on Tires), by Size of Automobile and Year of Operation 




1972 1974 



1976 



1972 1974 



1976 



STANDARD 
SIZE 



COMPACT 
SIZE 



1972 1974 1976 

SUBCOMPACT 
SIZE 



SOURCE FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION 



84 FARM PRODUCTION & INCOME 



'76 Crop Estimates 
Appear Slightly Under 
'75 Record Output 

Early season prospects 
indicate that total 1976 
crop output will be slightly 
below last year's record. 
Although crop acreage was 
expanded, encouraged by 
attractive prices at plant- 
ing time, prospective yields 
are lower. Production of 



livestock products— reflect- 
ing more generous supplies 
of beef, pork, broilers, 
eggs, and milk— shows 
moderate gains over 1975. 
The 1976 expansion in 
output of livestock stems 
from relatively favorable 
producer returns in 1975. 



Higher Export Demand, 
More Favorable Prices 
Spur Harvested Acreage 

Acreage harvested has risen 
to high levels in recent 
years. Strong export demand 
and relatively favorable 
prices for U.S. farm pro- 
ducts have stimulated larger 
plantings. In 1975, the 
production from about 1 out 
of 3 acres harvested moved 



into export markets. Grains 
and soybeans accounted for 
about 90 percent of the 
acreage and about three- 
fourths of the value of 
U.S. agricultural exports. 



INDEX. 1960-100 




1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1971 



MILLIONS OF ACRES 




U.S. CROP ACREAGE HARVESTED 



1960 



1975 



1976 



Total Acres Harvested 
Acres Harvested for 

Domestic Use 
Acres Harvested for Export 



NA Not available 





Millions of Acres 




324 


336 


336 


260 


236 


NA 


64 


100 


NA 




ACRES HARVESTED 
FOR DOMESTIC USE 



1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 197( 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



FARM PRODUCTION & INCOME 



85 



Record Cash Receipts 
Expected for '76 Farm 
Crops, Livestock Items 

Large 1976 crops and expanded 
output of livestock products 
mean that U.S. farmers will 
have more to sell at prices 
which are relatively favor- 
able due to strong domestic 
and export demand. This 
will result in a record flow 
of cash receipts to farmers. 



However, production ex- 
penses are continuing to 
rise despite lower fertilizer 
prices. On balance, total 
net farm income in 1976, 
which takes into account 
unsold inventories, is 
likely to hold close to the 
1975 level of $26 billion. 



Farm Food Costs Show 
Moderate Increases, 
Retail Spread Widens 

The U.S. Department of 
Agriculture's market basket 
of farm foods is expected to 
cost householders moderately 
more in 1976 than in 1975. 
This increase will result 
from a widening in farm- 
retail spreads, caused by 
the continued rise in wage 



rates and higher operating 
expenses of food marketing 
firms. 

The farm value of the 
market basket is expected 
to average a little lower 
this year because of the 
increased output of food 
commodities. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



FARM INCOME 


1965 


1975 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




Total Gross Income 
Production Expenses 
Total Net Income 


46.5 
33.6 
12.9 


101.1 

75.5 
25.6 


106.0 
81.0 
25.0 


COST OF A MARKET BASKET 
OF FARM FOODS 


2ND 
QTR 
1975 


1ST 
QTR 
1976 

Dollars per Household 
(Annual Rate) 


2ND 
QTR 
1976 


Retail Cost 
Farm-Retail Spread* 
Farm Value** 


1,838 

1,072 

766 


1,910 

1,141 

769 


1,895 

1,127 

768 



2,000 



1 ,500 



1 .000 



500 



DOLLARS PER HOUSEHOLD (ANNUAL RATE) 



'Gross margin received by marketing firms 
for assembling, processing, transporting, 
and distributing a market basket of food. 

**Gross return to farmers. 



1 ,500 



1 ,000 



500 



Cost of a Market Basket 
of Farm Foods 



\ 



RETAIL COST 



FARM VALUE 



■ ■ l_ 



1972 1973 1974 1975 

DOLLARS PER HOUSEHOLD (ANNUAL RATE) 



1976 



Farm-Retai 


I 
Spread 
























i ■ i 


> ■ ■ 


1 1 L . 


t i i 



1972 1973 



1974 



1975 1976 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



86 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT OF ARTISTS 



Number of Entertainers, 
Artists, Writers Up 
33.5% From 70 to 75 

In the 1970 census, the 
total number of writers, 
artists, and entertainers 
in the labor force was 
797,574 persons. By 1975 
the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics said there were 
1,055,000 persons in the 
same group, a 33.5-percent 



increase. The increase 
reflects a compounded annual 
growth rate for the 5-year 
period of 5.7 percent. At 
this rate of growth, the 
labor force of artists would 
double in a period of about 
12.5 years. 

Changes in unemployment 
of this group were substan- 
tially greater in 1975 than 
in 1974. For 1975, the un- 
employment rate for writers, 



artists, and entertainers 
was 7.4 percent, compared 
with 4.8 percent in 1974. 
Among the selected ar- 
tistic occupations in 1975, 
actors recorded the highest 
unemployment rate of 35 
percent, down from 47.4 
percent in 1974. All other 
selected occupations showed 
increases in the rate of 
unemployment during the 
same period. 



1,200- 



THOUSANDS 



1,000 



800- 



Total Writers, Artists, 

and Entertainers in Labor Force, 

Employed and Unemployed: 

1970-1975 



600 



400 



200 




TOTAL WRITERS, ARTISTS, 



AND ENTERTAINERS IN 
LABOR FORCE 



EMPLOYED WRITERS, ARTISTS. AND ENTERTAINERS 



UNEMPLOYED WRITERS, 

-ARTISTS, AND-| 

ENTERTAINERS 



1970 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



PERCENT 







I I 

Unemployment Rate 
fnr Writer"; Artists 






and Entertainers: 
1970-1975 






\ 




/ 





















































970 



197 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



EMPLOYMENTS UNEMPLOYMENT 
OF ARTISTS 



1970 



1975 



Number in Labor Force 


797,574 


1,055,000 


Number of Unemployed 


36,480 


78,000 


Percent Unemployed 


4.6 


7.4 



60 



PERCENT 



40- 



20- 



47.4 



5.4 



ARCHITECTS 



35 .0 







1974 



1975 



4 . 3 



Unemployment Rates 
for Selected Occupations: 
1974 and 1975 



ACTORS 



7 . 4 



7 . 9 



2_1^«« 2 3 
AUTHORS 0ESIGNERS 




5. 8 




3. 8 



6 . 2 



PHOTOGRAPHERS 



SOURCE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS 






FEDERAL RECREATION FEES 



87 



'75 Federal Recreation 
Fees Produce 
$20.6 Million 

The number of existing 
Federal recreation areas 
included under the Federal 
Recreation Fee Program 
totaled 2,785 in 1975. 
Recreation fee-management 
units (areas where fees are 
charged for use of sites, 
facilities, equipment, or 



services furnished at Federal 
expense) represented over 
90 percent of all Federal 
recreation areas. 

In 1975, $20.6 million in 
Federal recreation fees were 
collected. Although $12.4 
million came from recreation 
use fees, entrance fees 
produced almost $8 million. 

Visitors spent a majority 
of their time in areas where 
user fees were charged. 



Increases Recorded in 
Favorable Reactions 
to Facilities, Fees 

The public reaction to 
facilities and fees has been 
generally favorable. About 
89 percent of visitors 
reported that they were 
satisfied with facilities 
in 1975; 90 percent indicat- 
ed that the fees in the area 
of interview were comparable 



with those of other public 
agency areas; and 90 percent 
felt that the recreation 
fees were acceptable. 

Between 1974 and 1975, 
visitor awareness of the 
Golden Eagle Passport (which 
covers entrance fees for 
persons under 62) decreased, 
while awareness of the 
Golden Age Passport (issued 
to persons 62 years old and 
over) grew. 



NUMBER OF UNITS 



2,000 - 





2,785 


Number of Federal 
Recreation 

Fee-Management Areas: 
1975 










RECREATION 


USE FEE 






SPECIAL PERMIT FEE 






/ RECREATION 
/-"" ENTRANCE FEE 





TOTAL 





MILLIONS OF 


DOLLARS 


3U 




20.6 


Amount of Federal 
Recreation Fees Collected: 
1975 


20 - 






RECREATION 


10 - 


USE FEE 




RECREATION 


n _ 


ENTRANCE FEE 





PERCENT 






















Public Reaction to Facilities and Fees: 


1974-1975 






89 




90 






89 90 






BO 






84 

























80 - 






60 - 
























40 - 
























20 - 
























n - 























1974 1975 

SATISFACTORY 
FACILITIES 



1974 1975 

COMPARABILITY 
OF FEES 



1974 1975 

ACCEPT IBIL I TY 
OF FEES 



100 



PERCENT 



TOTAL 



MILLIONS OF VISITOR HOURS 



1 .856.9 



Annual Visitation 
to Federal Recreation 
Fee-Management Areas: 
1975 



RECREATION 
USE FEE 



SPECIAL PERMIT FEE 

RECREATION 
"ENTRANCE FEE 



80 - 



60 - 



40 - 



20 - 



Public Awareness of Golden Eagle/Golden Age 
Passports: 1974-1975 




52 

1 




TOTAL 



1974 



1975 



1974 



1975 



GOLDEN EAGLE 
PASSPORTS 



GOLDEN AGE 
PASSPORTS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION 



88 



notes & 
definitions 



NOTES 

Rounding— Detailed data in 
the tables may not agree 
with totals because of 
independent rounding. 
Furthermore, calculations 
shown in the text, such as 
percent and absolute changes, 
are based on the unrounded 
figures and, therefore, may 
not agree with those derived 
from rounded figures in the 
table. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Unless 
otherwise indicated, all data 
of less than annual frequency 
are seasonally adjusted by 
the source agency or exhibit 
no seasonal fluctuation. 

Survey and Sampling Error— 
The data in this chartbook 
come from a variety of sur- 
veys and other sources. Data 
from sample surveys are sub- 
ject to sampling error, and 
all the data are subject to 
possible nonsampling error 
due to nonresponse or report- 
ing and analysis error. 
For more detailed explana- 
tions of the sampling and 
nonsampling errors asso- 
ciated with each series, 
contact the appropriate 
source. 



DEFINITIONS 

Section I 

PEOPLE 

Employment and 
Unemployment 

Average (Mean) Duration of 
Unemployment— Length of time 
through the current survey 
week during which persons 
classified as unemployed had 
been continuously looking 
for work. 

Civilian Labor Force— All 
civilians 16 years old and 
over who were employed 
or unemployed during a 
specified week. 

Employed Persons— Persons 
who did any work for pay or 
profit, worked 15 hours or 
more as unpaid workers in a 
family enterprise, or who 
were temporarily absent from 
their jobs for noneconomic 
reasons. 

Unemployed Persons— Persons 

not working but available 
and looking for work, on 
layoff from a job, or waiting 
to report to a new job. 

Personal Income 

Income received by all 
individuals in the economy 
from all sources. 

Distributive Industries- 
Industries involved in the 
flow of goods and services 
from production to consump- 
tion, including buying, 
selling, advertising, 
transporting, etc. 



Wage and Salary Disbursements- 
All employee earnings, in- 
cluding wages, salaries, 
bonuses, commissions, pay- 
ments in kind, incentive 
payments and tips, paid to 
employees in a given period 
of time, regardless of when 
earned. 

Average Workweek 

Data relate to production 
workers in mining and manu- 
facturing, to construction 
workers in contract construc- 
tion, and to nonsupervisory 
workers in transportation and 
public utilities, wholesale 
and retail trade, finance, 
insurance, and real estate, 
and services. These groups 
account for approximately 
four-fifths of the total 
employment on private 
nonagricultural payrolls. 

Labor Turnover in 
Manufacturing 

Labor Turnover— The movement 
of wage and salary workers into 
and out of employed status. 

Total Accessions— The total 
number of permanent and 
temporary additions to the 
employment rolls, including 
both new and rehired employees. 
Other accessions, which are 
not published separately but 
are included in total acces- 
sions, include transfers from 
other establishments of the 
company and employees 
recalled from layoff. 

Total Separations— Permanent 
or temporary terminations of 
employment. Other separations, 
which are not published separ- 
ately but are included in 
total separations, include 
discharge, permanent dis- 



ability, death, retirement, 
transter to another estab- 
lishment of the company, and 
entrance into the Armed Forces 
for a period expected to last 
more than 30 consecutive days. 

Selected Current Vital Statistics 

Rates are on an annual 
basis. Infant mortality rates are 
deaths under 1 year per 
1 ,000 live births and are 
adjusted for varying numbers 
of births. Other rates are 
per 1,000 estimated resident 
population for specific 
months. 

Hypertension 

Definite Hypertension- 
Systolic pressure of 160 mm 
Hg or more; or a diastolic 
pressure of 95 mm HG or more. 

U.S. Population 

In addition to data from 
the decennial censuses, 
estimates are based on statis- 
tics on births and deaths 
provided by the National 
Center for Health Statistics; 
statistics on immigration are 
provided by the Immigration 
and Naturalization Service; 
on civilian citizens abroad, 
provided by the Department of 
Defense and the Civil Service 
Commission; on movement 
between Puerto Rico and the 
U.S. mainland, provided by the 
Puerto Rico Planning Board; 
and on the Armed Forces, pro- 
vided by the Department of 
Defense. 

Voter Participation 

Voting-Age Population— In 

1972 and 1974, the civilian 
noninstitutional population 
18 years and over. In 1968 



. 



89 



and 1970, includes persons 

18 years old and over 

in Georgia and Kentucky, 

19 years old and over in 
Alaska, 20 years old and 
over in Hawaii, and 21 years 
old and over in the 
remaining States. 

Special Feature 

EDUCATION 

Expenditures for Education- 
Includes expenditures of public 
and nonpublic schools at all 
levels of education. 

Population Projections- 
Bureau of the Census has pre- 
pared three sets of population 
projections reflecting differ- 
ent assumptions about future 
fertility trends. Series II 
assumes that the average 
number of lifetime births per 
woman will move toward 2.'1 . 

Preprimary— Beginning groups 
of children during the year 
or years preceding the pri- 
mary level (grades 1 through 
3). Includes prekinder- 
garten and kindergarten 
programs. 

Preprimary Program— A set of 
organized educational experiences 
for children attending pre- 
kindergarten and kindergarten 
classes. Institutions which 
offer essentially custodial 
care, such as many "daycare 
centers," are not included. 

Higher Education Institutions- 
Universities and colleges. 

Other 4-Year Institutions- 
Institutions that offer programs 
extending at least 4 years after 
high school, and include all 



institutions that grant bachelors' 
or higher degrees or some recog- 
nition equivalent to such 
degrees. 

Un iversities— I nstitutions 
that place considerable 
emphasis on graduate instruction 
and have at least two pro- 
fessional schools that are 
not exclusively technological. 

Postsecondary Education- 
Encompasses higher education, 
vocational-technical education, 
and adult education. 

Adult Education— Organized 
instruction (including 
correspondence courses and 
private tutoring), usually 
conducted at a set time and 
place, with a predetermined 
end result: a certificate, 
diploma, or degree; rarely 
a full-time pursuit. 

Dropouts— Persons 14 to 24 
years old who are not enrolled 
in school and who are not 
high school graduates. 

Minority Students— Includes 
American Indians, Negroes, 
Orientals, and students with 
Spanish surnames. 

Northern and Western States- 
States not included in other 
categories. 

Border States and D.C.- 
Delaware, District of Columbia, 
Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri , 
Oklahoma, and West Virginia. 

Southern States— Alabama, 
Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Texas, and 
Virginia. 



Children From Low-Income 

Areas— All children in 
Elementary and Secondary 
Education Act (ESEA) Title I 
eligible schools, whether 
or not from low-income families. 

Holistic Score— Rating based 
on a reader's response to the 
whole essay rather than to 
such aspects as style, 
contents, mechanics, etc. 
This type of score provides 
a reliable ranking of 
essays but tells nothing about 
the quality of the papers. 

High Metro— Areas in or 
around cities with a population 
greater than 200,000 where a 
high proportion of the residents 
are in professional or 
managerial positions. 

Low Metro— Areas in or around 
cities with a population 
greater than 200,000 where a 
high proportion of the residents 
are on welfare or are not 
regularly employed. 

Main Big City— Communities 

within the limits of a 

city with a population over 

200,000 and not included 

in the high- or low-metro groups. 

Urban Fringe— Communities 

in the metropolitan area 

of a city with a population 

greater than 200,000, but outside 

the city limits and not in 

the high- or low-metro groups. 

Medium City— Cities with 
populations between 25,000 
and 200,000. 



Small Places— Communities 
with a population of less 
than 25,000 and not in the 
extreme rural group. 

Extreme Rural— Areas with a 
population under 10,000 where 
most of the residents are 
farmers or farm workers. 

Affluent Suburb-See High 
Metro. 

Low Socioeconomic Status 
Metro— See Low Metro. 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

Industrial Production 

Industrial Production Index- 
Measures average changes in 
the physical volume of output 
produced by the Nation's 
factories, mines, and 
generating plants. 

Major Market Groupings- 
Groupings of industries to 
reflect the end uses (or 
primary customers) to which 
the goods are put. 

Manufacturing and Trade Sales 
and Inventories 

Inventory-to-Sales Ratio- 
Indicates the number of 
months supply of goods on 
hand at the current rate of 
sales. The respective ratios 
are derived by dividing the 
value of inventories at the 
end of a given period by the 
value of sales during the 
same period. 



90 



NOTES & DEFINITIONS- Continued 



Advance Retail Sales 

General Merchandise Group 
With Nonstores— Includes 
department stores, variety 
stores, general stores, and 
those selling general mer- 
chandise by mail and vending 
machine. 

Consumer Price Index 

Measures average changes in 
prices of a fixed market 
basket of goods and services 
bought by urban wage earners 
and clerical workers. It is 
based on prices of about 400 
items obtained in urban por- 
tions of 39 major statistical 
areas and 1 7 smaller cities 
which were chosen to 
represent all urban areas 
in the United States. 

Wholesale Price Index 

Measures average changes 
in prices of commodities 
sold in large quantities by 
producers in primary markets 
in the U.S. The index is 
based on a sample of about 
2,700 commodities selected 
to represent the movement of 
prices of all commodities 
produced. 

Agricultural Prices 

Ratio of Index of Prices 
Received by Farmers to 
Index of Prices Paid- 
Measures the purchasing power 
of products sold by farmers 
compared to their purchasing 
power in the base period. 
Above 100, products sold by 
farmers have an average per- 
unit purchasing power higher 
than in the base period. 
Below 1 00, the average per- 
unit purchasing power of 
commodities sold by farmers 
is less than in the base 



period. It is a price com- 
parison, not a measure of 
cost, standard of living, or 
income parity. 

Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Put in Place— Measures the 
estimated value of both 
private and public construc- 
tion activity, including 
additions and alterations 
of existing structures. The 
estimates are intended to 
represent value of construc- 
tion installed or erected 
during a given time period 
and cover the cost of labor 
and materials, as well as 
the cost of architectural 
and engineering fees, charges 
for equipment and overhead, 
and profit on construction 
operations. 

Federal Construction 

Federal Contract Award— A 
contract that has been 
awarded to build a federally- 
owned construction project. 
Included are awards for new 
construction, additions, 
and alterations. 

New Plant and Equipment 
Expenditures 

Expenditures by all private 
business (except farming, 
real estate, the professions, 
and nonprofit, and other 
institutions) for new plant, 
machinery, and equipment. 
Includes automobiles, trucks, 
and other transport equip- 
ment and excludes expendi- 
tures for land and mineral 
rights, maintenance and 
repair, and expenditures 
made in foreign countries. 



New Business Incorporations 

Represents the total number 
of stock corporations issued 
charters under the general 
business corporation laws of 
the various States and the 
District of Columbia. The 
statistics include completely 
new businesses that are 
incorporated, existing 
businesses that are changed 
from the noncorporate to the 
corporate form of organization, 
existing corporations that 
have been given certificates 
of authority to operate also 
in another State, and existing 
corporations transferred to 
a new State. Data for 
incorporations in the District 
of Columbia are included 
beginning January 1963. 

Failure Index— Relates the 
number of failures in each 
month to the number of 
industrial and commercial 
enterprises listed in the 
Dun & Bradstreet Reference 
Book. It shows the annual 
rate at which business 
concerns would fail if the 
number of failures and con- 
cerns listed in that month 
prevailed for an entire year. 

Composite Index of Leading 
Indicators 

A combined index of 1 2 
indicators of specialized 
economic activities that 
usually record business 
cycle peaks and troughs 
ahead of current general 
economic activity, thus providing 
clues to future shifts in the 
general direction of business 
activity. 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Automobile Operating Costs 

Federal and State Taxes- 
Includes Federal excise taxes 
on tires (1 cents per pound), 
lubricating oil (6 cents per 
gallon), and gasoline (4 cents 
per gallon); plus State taxes 
on gasoline. 

Federal Recreation Fee Program 

Provides for the charging of 
entrance fees and recreation- 
use fees at designated Federal 
recreation areas and facilities, 
and for the charging of fees 
for special recreation permits, 
under the Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Act of 1965. 

Entrance Fees— Charged only 
at the national parks, monu- 
ments, recreation areas, 
seashores, and historic and 
memorial parks and sites 
administered by the National 
Park Service; may be paid on a 
single-visit basis or on an 
annual basis through purchase 
of a Golden Eagle Passport. 

Special Recreation Permits- 
Issued for uses such as group 
activities, recreation events, 
motorized recreation vehicles, 
and other specialized uses on 
Federal recreation lands. 






sources 



91 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

FARM POPULATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Series Census-ERS, P-27, 
Nos. 31-47, Farm Population 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Economic Research Service, 
Population Estimates for 
1920-1962, ERS 1-130 

Contact: 

Diana DeAre 202-763-5309 

U.S. VETERANS 

Veterans Administration 

1975 Annual Report 

Contact: 

Robert W. Schultz 

202-389-3677 

PERSONAL INCOME 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Pauline M. Cypert 

202-523-0832 

WHITE-COLLAR SALARIES 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

USDL-76-1005 

Contact: 

C. O'Connor 202-523-1268 

PERSONAL CONSUMPTION 
EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Tom Petska 202-523-0836 

EMPLOYMENT AND 
UNEMPLOYMENT AND 
AVERAGE WORKWEEK 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

The Employment Situation 

Contact: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 



LABOR TURNOVER IN 
MANUFACTURING 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Employment and Earnings 

Statistics for the United States 

Contact: 

G. Storch 202-523-1364 

K. Hoyle 202-523-1913 

HYPERTENSION 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Health and 
Nutrition Examination 
Survey (To Be Published) 
Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 
301-443-1200 

SELECTED CURRENT 
VITAL STATISTICS 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare, National 

Center for Health Statistics, 

Monthly Vital Statistics Reports 

Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 

301-443-1200 

U.S. POPULATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, Current 
Population Reports, Series P-25, 
No. 632, "Estimates of the 
Population of the United 
States and Components of 
Change: 1930 to 1975," and 
No. 636, "Estimates of the 
Population of the United 
States to August 1 , 1976 " 
Contact : 
Jennifer Peck 301-763-5184 

LIFETIME BIRTH 
EXPECTATIONS OF 
U.S. MARRIED WOMEN 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Current 

Population Reports, "Prospects 

for American Fertility: June 

1976," Series P-20. (Advance 

Report) 

Contact: 

Martin O'Connell 301-763-5303 



VOTING-AGE POPULATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Current Population Reports, 
"Projections of the Population 
of Voting Age for States: 
November 1976 " Series P-25, 
No. 626 

Special Feature 

EDUCATION 

Compiled from: 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare. 

National Center for Education 

Statistics, The Condition of 

of Education, 1976 Edition 

Contact: 

Mary A. Golladay 

202-245-8053 

and 

Digest of Education Statistics, 

1975 Edition 

Contact: 

W. Vance Grant 202-245-851 1 

Additional Sources: 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare, 

National Center for Education 

Statistics, Preprimary 

Enrollment, October 1975 

Contact: 

Irene A. King 202-245-861 1 

Participation in Adult 

Education, 1975 

Contact: 

Ruth L. Boaz 202-245-8780 

College Entrance Examination 

Board, College-Bound Seniors, 

1974-75 

Contact : 

Robert G. Cameron 

212-582-6210 

National Opinion Research 
Center, Codebook for the 
Spring, General Social Survey: 
1973, 1974, 1975, and 1976 
Contact: 

Thomas W. Smith 
312-753-1573 



GALLUP POLLS 

The Gallup Survey of Public 

Attitudes Toward The Public 

Schools 

Contact: 

Susan Thomson 

609-924-9600 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

FISCAL FEDERALISM 

Advisory Commission on 

Intergovernmental Relations, 

Significant Features of Fiscal 

Federalism J976, Edition 1 

Trends. M-106 

Contact: 

Frank X. Tippett 202-382-4975 

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW 
ONE-FAMILY HOMES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Characteristics of New 

Housing: 1975, Series C-25A 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-5731 

U.S. DISTRICT COURTS 

Administrative Office of 

the U.S. Courts, 1976 Semi-Annual 

Report of the Director 

Contact: 

James McCafferty 202-393-1640 

INTERNAL REVENUE 
SERVICE COLLECTIONS 

Commission of Internal 

Revenue, Annual Report, FY 75 

Contact: 

Larry Batdorf 202-964-6258 

PROPERTY VALUES SUBJECT 
TO TAXATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Property 

Values Subject to Local General 

Property Taxation in the United 

States: 1975, GSS No. 80 

Contact: 

Earle Knapp 301-763-5302 



92 



DAYTIME CARE 
OF CHILDREN 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census. 
Current Population Reports, 
"Daytime Care of Children: 
October 1974 and February 
1975," Series P-20, No. 298 
Contact: 
Larry E. Suter 301-763-5050 



Section I II 

ECONOMY 

WORLD INDUSTRIAL 

PRODUCTION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

Betty Tunstall 301-763-7240 

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Federal Reserve Bulletin 

and Statistical Release 

G-1 2.3, Industrial Production 

Contact: 

Joan Hosley 202-452-2476 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Highlights of Exports and 

Imports, FT-990 

Contact: 

Harold Blyweiss 301-763-7776 

MANUFACTURING & TRADE 

SALES & INVENTORIES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Teresa L. Weadock 202-523-0782 

ADVANCE REPORT 

ON RETAIL SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Advance Monthly Retail 

Trade Report 

Contact: 

Irving True 301-763-7660 



ADVANCE REPORT ON 
MANUFACTURERS' 
DURABLE GOODS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Current Industrial Reports, 
"Manufacturers' Shipments, 
Inventories, and Orders," 
Series M3-1 
Contact: 
William Menth 301-763-2502 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

CPI Detailed Report 

for March 1976 

Contact: 

Ken Dalton 202-523-1182 

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Wholesale Prices and Price 

Indexes 

Contact: 

John Early 202-523-1795 

AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Crop Reporting 
Board, Agricultural Prices 
Contact: 
J. L. Olson 202-447-3570 

HOUSING PERMITS BY STATE 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Housing Authorized by Building 

Permits and Public Contracts: 

1975, Series C-20 

Contact: 

John Pettis 301-763-7244 

HOUSING STARTS 

AND PERMITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Housing Starts, Series C-20 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Value of New Construction 



Put in Place, Series C-30 

Contact: 

Allan Meyer 301-763-5717 

FEDERAL CONSTRUCTION 

Data are collected from the 

Commerce Business Daily and 

other Federal agencies and 

compiled by the Bureau of 

the Census 

Contact: 

David I. Siskind 301-763-7165 

NEW PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 
EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

John E. Cremeans 

202-523-0681 

CONSUMER INSTALLMENT 
CREDIT 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Statistical Release G. 19, 

Consumer Credit 

Contact: 

Reba Driver 202-452-2458 

BUSINESS INCORPORATIONS 
AND FAILURES 

Dun and Bradstreet, Inc., 

The Monthly Business 

Incorporation; The Failure 

Record 

Contact: 

Rowena Wyant 212-285-7000 

BUSINESS CONDITIONS 
INDICATORS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

FeliksTamm 301-763-7614 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL 
TO AND FROM THE U.S. 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
U.S. Travel Service, Highlights 



of International Travel to 
and From the U.S.: 1976 
Data also from U.S. Department 
of Transportation: U.S. Immi- 
gration and Naturalization 
Service; Statistics of Canada; 
and the Bank of Mexico 
Contact: 
Don Wynegar 202-377-4028 

PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

National Science Foundation, 

Science Indicators, 1974 

Contact: 

Dr. Robert Wright 

202-282-7706 

COST OF OPERATING 

AN AUTOMOBILE 

U.S. Department of Transportation, 

Federal Highway Administration, 

Cost of Operating an Automobile: 

1976, DOT512 

Contact: 

Doris Graff Velona 

202-426-4138 

FARM PRODUCTION 
AND INCOME 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 

Economic Research Service and 

Statistical Reporting Service, 

Handbook of Agricultural Charts, 

No. 491, and unpublished data 

Contact: 

Red Rowley 202-447-6202 

EMPLOYMENT AND 
UNEMPLOYMENT 
OF ARTISTS 

National Endowment for the Arts, 
Employment and Unemployment 
of Artists: 1970-1975 
Contact: 
Harold Horowitz 
202-634-7103 

FEDERAL RECREATION FEES 

U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, 

Federal Recreation Fees: 1975 

Contact: 

Neil J. Stout 202-343-5971 



Statistics for the United States 
graphically presented in: 




A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
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INTRODUCTION -(Continued from page 2) 



STATUS also provides list- 
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